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A red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle

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The escalating and inelastic demand for energy to fuel economic activities exerts pressures on its limited supply. The skyrocketing prices of petroleum products results in the depletion of non-renewable energy sources and the continued investigation and use of renewable and innovation results. Research shows that  energy demand is expected to increase three fold by 2050.

The concept of using human food to create ethanol is on full bloom, but environmentalists have warned that the bio fuel craze can do as much or more damage to the environment as dirty fossil fuels, citing the Amazon Rainforest is being destroyed every year to produce bio-fuel crops. So now we see the consequences in Africa. A market has been created by British and EU laws requiring the blending of rising amounts of bio fuels into petrol and diesel.

മലയാളം: മംഗളവനത്തിലെ കണ്ടൽ മരങ്ങൾ
Upon this backdrop, Mangrove forests can appear as light beam in such a darkening situation because they have the hidden blessing for production of bio fuel. We must search other sources rather than food material, so forget corn, soy, sugar cane, palm and even jatropha.Halophytes can be productive sources of biomass energy. For example, Salicornia seed is 32% oil by mass. Halophytes flourish in arid land and can be irrigated with seawater, making them suitable for bio fuel development. Dominating many coastlines in tropical and subtropical areas, mangroves are a bridge between terrestrial and marine environments. They are also extremely productive ecosystems.The most extensive area of mangroves is found in Asia, followed by Africa and South America. According to the FAO, the total mangrove area is around 150,000 km2. Four countries (Indonesia, Brazil, Nigeria, and Australia) account for about 41% percent of all mangroves. Pakistan’s coastline covers about 700 kilometres of Sindh and Balochistan provinces (almost only 8% of total forestry).

A cluster of mangroves on the banks of Vellike...

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Salicornia is a juicy plant used as bio fuel has a higher recovery and quality of oil than other crops, the plant has no direct competition with food crops. There are experimental fields of Salicornia in Ras al-Zawr (Saudi Arabia), Eritrea (Northeast Africa) and Sonora (Northwest Mexico) aimed at the production of biodiesel. The company responsible for the Sonora trials (Global Seawater) claims that between 225 and 250 gallons of BQ-9000 biodiesel can be produced per hectare (approximately 2.5 acres) of salicornia and is promoting a $35 million scheme to create a 12,000-acre (49 km2) salicornia farm in Bahia de Kino.

Robert Glenn, a plant biologist at University of Arizona, deserves credit for demonstrating the use of Salicornia as bio fuels. Later, Jelte Rozema and Timothy Flowers, scientists at NASA, said that Glenn’s work is of high significance. Glenn has claimed that Salicornia could be grown on 480,000 square miles of unused land across the globe. Saudi Arabia, Eritrea and Mexico are already running trials to examine Salicornia’s potential as bio fuels.

Scientists at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland have been trying to fill the skies with algae and explore new means to create alternative energy source for commercial aviation. It seems like Bilal Bomani, a scientist at NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, has tied the future of space exploration to sub-aquatic life. He is also using salicornia for his experimental work.

Salicornia gaudichaudiana

Salicornia is also an eco-friendly plantation as it absorbs carbon dioxide. It is for these qualities that salicornia is often referred to as ‘miracle plant’. It is indeed producing miracles in some parts of the world and being rapidly adopted by countries with vast coastlines and saline water.

Nevertheless, caution must be used.

Mangrove forests are one of the world’s most threatened tropical ecosystems. Mangrove forests require stable sea levels for long-term survival. They are therefore extremely sensitive to current rising sea levels caused by global warming and climate change. More than 35% of the world’s mangroves are already gone. The figure is as high as 50% in countries such as India, the Philippines, and Vietnam, while in the Americas they are being cleared at a rate faster than tropical rainforests.

Freshwater diversions can also lead to mangroves drying out, if salinity becomes too high, the mangroves cannot survive.

Figure 1: Trends in mangrove area extent over time

Oil pollution can smother mangrove roots and suffocate the trees. These communities also collect medicinal plants from mangrove ecosystems and use mangrove leaves as animal fodder. Recently, the forests have also been commercially harvested for pulp, wood chip, and charcoal production.

Mangrove (Sonneratia ?alba) trees and pneumato...

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We must continue to evolve bio fuels to incorporate feed stocks that are not only sustainable, but actually regenerative and can restore the ecosystems where they are found. Mangrove is a source of timber, fuel, railroad ties and tannin in the tropics. Having a short crop rotation period makes red mangroves a popular choice for posts and poles in managed forests in Malaysia. In Asia, commercial mangrove production is necessary for the construction of boats, houses and furniture.

Productive steps must be taken in increase the population and protective function of mangroves, but also provide sustainable and value-added livelihoods to the poor coastal population. Many efforts are being done to establish mangrove plantations along the entire coast for rehabilitation purposes, 19,000 ha of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata have been rehabilated in Sindh and Balochistan in the 1990 within a collaboration between the Sindh Government and IUCN and around 17,000 ha have been restored in the Indus delta with support of the World Bank in 1999.

Senior Advisor on coastal ecosystems with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Tahir Qureshi, has extended help in rehabilitating 30,000 hectares of mangroves along the southern coast on the Arabian Sea, including in Baluchistan. Some mangrove areas have been converted to cultivated land prior to 1995. After losses in mangrove extent that may have occurred have been balanced by the natural regeneration and reforestation efforts, consequently no major changes appear to have occurred over the last ten years.

Figure 2: Trends in Pakistani mangrove area over time

English: Snap of Mangrove forest in vicinity o...

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In other developing countries mangroves are being exploited and shipped for pulp and particleboard. The renewed mangroves would serve as a carbon sink and source of bio ethanol fuel to reduce carbon dioxide emission and generate good income to alleviate poverty and mitigate climate change. More than 500,000 individuals would benefit, including many in the transport sector. They would not only help revolutionize poverty but also serve as raw material for some industries and exports.

Although aquatic plants may have less commercial potential than do terrestrial plants, future advances in technology may open promising doors for the economic use of harvested aquatic weeds in Pakistan and elsewhere.


Aquaponic is a combination of two words, Aqua – water and Ponics-Farm in a box.

“Aquaponics an environmentally-friendly, natural food growing method to facilitate the cultivation of fish and plants together in a constructed, re-circulating ecosystem utilizing natural bacterial cycles to convert fish wastes to plant nutrients. “So it is also called as recirculation farming.

Recirculation farms are a socially responsible farming method and business too; they support the use of renewable energy, recycle water and waste, and provide local food. Aquaponic systems are much more productive and use up to 90 percent less water than conventional gardens. Other advantages include no weeds, fewer pests, and no watering, fertilizing, bending, digging or heavy lifting etc. there are different types of aquaponic like Media Bed– (using a substance such as lave rocks or other medium other than soil for raising plants and bacteria)Raft– (using foam boards with cut outs to place planter pots floating in fish water) and NFT– Nutrient Film Technique -(using PVC pipes or similar materials with cut outs for plants using a continuous flow of water)

A portable aquaponics system with watercress
Fish and plants are grown in a symbiotic balance. Wastes from the fish provide nutrients for the plants, and in turn the plants filter the water for the fish. It is a revolutionary combination of the best of aquaculture and hydroponics and an amazingly fun and easy way to raise fish together with organic vegetables, greens, herbs and fruits.

This project was inspired by the escalation food costs due to a poor economy, the undesirable genetic modifications of produce, An indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the growing processes of most our food, The growing shortage of clean agricultural land that has not been contaminated by excessive fertilizer use and other pollutants.

Lawn hydroponics systems very easily, just few space of lawn is important to get, even major expertise and equipment are not necessary to arrange

We need simply an aquarium with fish or any aquatic animal like tortoise etc. as a living creature aquatic animal utilise food and its metabolism produces waste material Bacteria break down aquatic animal’s waste products into plant nutrients in the water. The water is then used to irrigate the plants. It takes a month or so for the fish/bacteria system to establish itself. Then suitable environments build for growth of aquatic plant successfully. The plants use the nutrients and keep the water for the fish clean. This food cycle continue and provide food to both aquatic animals and plants, give necessary gases to both living creatures and resultant a complete hydroponic system builds. So the cycle continues-crops are constantly harvested and the system feeds and watering itself in a sustainable ecosystem approach to food production. Surround the system with a greenhouse; add lady birds and other beneficial insects in crops area so that they help in the production of decomposition and a microcosm are born that decay material.

The plant bed in an aquaponic systems

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Growing your own food by using natural and harmless materials is the best way to improve environment and all other living and non living factors. because if we grow our own food we must know which type of Compost we are using, in this way our soil is getting no harm which further benefit us in food chain reactions, Growing food locally and naturally without the use of harmful pesticides and chemical fertilizers is interesting thing from both economically and environmental point of view.

No soil is needed and Water conservative method, the water stays in the system and can be reused thus, lower water costs. Once biological balance is achieved, it is self-sustaining, and only requires the fish to be fed. In this established ecosystem each part is dependent on other, must carefully combine the amount and number of fish, bacteria, and plant material so that this balance is achieved. Too many fish will lead to muddy water that will not support the fish, and not enough fish will fail to provide enough food for the plants. Without enough bacteria, the fish waste will not be converted to food for the vegetables.

No nutrition pollution is released into the environment because of the controlled system and no herbs cause damage or negative impact on crops or plants. They produce healthy enriched anti oxidant food. These anti-oxidants are also vital for preventing or fighting many types of cancer.

Stable and high yields, Flowers, fruits, herbs, and vegetables can all be successfully grown by this method. It is also an ideal method to use for creating a wildlife garden in the backyard to enjoy the natural beauty nature can only provide, while at the same time benefit the environment.

A portable aquaponics system with watercress

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Pests and diseases are easier to get rid of than in soil because of the container’s mobility No pesticide damage, hydroponics without the need to discard any water or filtrate or add chemical fertilizers.

This highlights how farms are not only increasingly supplying restaurants and grocery stores with food, but also are helping to feed the homeless, and others that don’t have access to fresh, healthy food around the world.

 


 

Electricity generation is a major concern for much of the world, since demand is only rising with the growing human population.Hydropower is electricity generated using the energy of moving water. Electricity generated from water is entirely renewable, since water is an abundant natural resource and no water is expended during the electricity generation process.

Hydroelectric energy is one of many sources of electricity in the world. The future of hydropower is looking like it will still be used in the next century or more, because the world will still have plenty of running water and the need for lots of non-polluting energy.  It is clean, non-polluting, and prevents floods. World has built 45000 large dams so far while we have built only two large dams with 7 per cent of world’s irrigated area which shows our criminal neglect in safeguarding our life giving waters.

According to an estimate the present volume of all storage reservoirs with gross capacity of 5 cu/km and above amounts to some 4900 cu/km. Out of this 1770 cu/km are in Asia with majority in China. China has some 83000 reservoirs built for various purposes, of which 330 are major in size. While in Pakistan we have two major and about a dozen smaller reservoirs.

A typical hydro plant is a system with three parts: an electric plant where the electricity is produced; a dam that can be opened or closed to control water flow; and a reservoir where water can be stored. In dams hydro power is produce via turbines. The water behind the dam flows through an intake and pushes against blades in a turbine, causing them to turn. The turbine spins a generator to produce electricity. The productive amount of electricity depends mainly on turbine movement by water flow.

The first hydroelectric power station in history started producing electricity in 1882, according to the Library of Congress web site. It was located in the state of Wisconsin, and used the Fox River for electrical generation.

The largest hydroelectric dam in the world is Rogun in Tajikistan.  It stands over 1000 feet tall. Hydroelectric energy is one of many energy sources used in the world. In this report there is going to be information about how hydroelectric energy works, its pros and cons, where dams are built, and more about making electricity form water.

China generates more hydroelectricity than any other country, as indicated by the China Daily. It also states that about twenty percent of electricity worldwide is generated with hydroelectric. China has built power stations of this kind in other countries as well.

Pakistan has the 21st largest river in the world in terms of annual flow, many small rivers, and one of the largest irrigation systems in the world with abundant canals. There is proven potential to generate more than 40,000 MW by hydroelectric power alone. A large number of small dams can be easily constructed by entrepreneurs under a liberal public-private partnership policy. Hydroelectric power should be given top priority as it is the cleanest and cheapest form of energy.

Hydroelectric power is an important domestic primary energy resource, and hydroelectric potential is estimated at around 10,000 megawatts. Pakistan has two great river dams: the Tarbela Dam on the Indus in the North-West Frontier, near the early Buddhist site at Taxila, has an installed capacity of 2,164 megawatts and the Mangla Dam on the Jhelum, where Punjab borders Azad Kashmir has an installed capacity of 800 megawatts. The Warsak Dam on the Kabul River near Peshawar is smaller and now a day’s producing just 243MW. These dams, along with a series of head works and barrages built by the British and expanded since independence, are of vital importance to the national economy and played an important role in calming the furious floodwaters of 1992, which devastated large areas in the northern highlands and the Punjab plains.

 

 

 

According to World Bank report of 2006 Pakistan was fast moving from being a water-stressed country to a water-scarce country, Pakistan providentially had the largest irrigation system, but water fatalities from the system were the highest in the World, due to which its agricultural sector have been affecting badly as population of country increasing rapidly but as compare to population growing capacity of agricultural sectors reducing rapidly due to water shortage.

Manufacturing of more dams can resolve energy crisis besides that may prevent the economy of Pakistan from the irreversible damages to corps and precious lands by the continuous floods every year. Dam construction in India has seen staggering growth from 300 dams in 1947 to an astounding 4,000 large and small dams at the turn of the last century, half of which were built between 1971 and 1989. India is building 60 large and small dams on our three Western rivers in occupied Kashmir under the plea that Pakistan is wasting its waters into the sea.

For the second time since the Indus Water Treaty, 1960, Pakistan has challenged India over its construction of dams. Alarm and concern has been in the air along with efforts to thwart India’s water plans. The Kishanganga dam project will divert waters from Jhelum into India’s own fields, making 5.6 million acres of Pakistani lands barren. Taking this to international agencies for arbitration has not proved fruitful as India is proceeding with its 330-megawatt hydro-electric project.

Afghanistan also plans to build 12 dams on the Kabul River with a combined storage capacity of 4.7 million acre-feet (MAF). Pakistan worries that these dams will stop crucial water supply from flowing to the Indus River, and that Indian support for these dams will increase India’s hydro-influence in the region”.

The entire nation of Pakistan by all mean depends on the dams. After much most suffering to Pakistani nation now 5923 MW electricity could be produced by formation of four dams (Bhasha, Munda, Kurram Tangi and Akhori Dam) announced by current Government and still a hope for 11526MW by construction of Bunji, Dasu  and Golen Gol (106MW) and it would also come in national grid in the coming years. Really now it’s time for action and sincerely give benefit to nation by formation of more dams.

 

 

 


English: Worldwide Renewable energy, existing ...

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Regrettably, Pakistan is under the black-outs of not just due to terrorism, corruption, Inflation but mainly because of electricity and gas shortage and this in long run affects all sector of life which you could imagine. Natural disasters like The Great Earthquake and Flood-2010 have negatively affected our growth rate and a number of energy plants were, partially or completely damaged.

About 1.4 billion people today lack access to electricity, and current trends indicate that this will not change significantly by 2030. It is also estimated that 2.5 billion people will still use traditional biomass for cooking in 2030, with related health effects leading to 1.5 million premature deaths per year, mostly among women and children.

Blame game about electricity and gas shortage is on full bloom so few said, “All this happened to start in just the recent decade in history and Due to some Pakistani leaders”. A story in Pakistani newspaper is alleging that “these expensive rental power plants, which were being installed with tall claims to address the energy crises in the country, were said to have now become one of the major reasons behind a new sorts of energy crises in Pakistan, as their gas requirements are bound to hit other sectors of economy running on gas supplies”. Currently, country has actually absorbed some of the unforgettable dents, and resulted Today, Pakistan is under some electricity circle of crisis.

                                                                     Figure 1: Electricity Status of Pakistan

Unfortunately and shameful is this now we are much more depended on foreign aids even though Pakistan blessed with all natural resources we could produce 50,000 MGW Electric Power for 800 years from just one reserve of Coal. From Water if we utilize we could produce same amount, and from the coastal area of just 180 KM on Province of Sind side we could produce 10,000 MGW from the wind for life-time.

Hydral Electricity generated by WAPDA varies between two extremities i.e. between minimum of 2414 MW and maximum of 6761 MW depending upon the river flow through the whole year.

English: Taken by Neutronic

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Pakistan has almost 3,000 MW power generation potential in sugar industry through biogas, but it is hardly producing some 700MW. A research Study conducted by the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, suggests that the country’s energy demand is expected to increase three fold by 2050, but supply position is not inspiring in anyway. In such alarming conditions the renewable and sustainable energy resources are the best substitute to the conventional fuels and energy sources.

Total Power Generation Capacity of Pakistan (including all sources) is 19855 MW and the electricity demand is 14500 MW and PEPCO is merely generating 10000 MW.

Due to gas and electricity load shedding many people have been at edge to live hand to mouth in big industrial cities where all small and big industries provides the worker bread and butter. In Faisalabad almost three lakh (0.3 million) people have lost their job due to closure of industries. Same is happening to other big industrial cities like Gujranwala, Multan, Lahore, and Rawalpindi. The industries are mainly close due to 12 to 15 hours of electricity load-shedding and no proper supply of gas to the industrial sector has worsened the situation.

The industrial output and commercial activity of a country is gauged by the per capita consumption of electricity. We are one of the lowest consumers of power in Asia. Per capita energy consumption of Pakistan is only 14 MBTU compared to 80 in China, 110 in Malaysia and 115 in Iran.

After much most suffering to Pakistani nation now Current Government satisfied them by building of more dams to store water for making electricity. A number of dams like Bhasha (4,500MW), Munda (740MW), Kurram Tangi (83MW) and Akhori Dam (600MW) are already announced by the current government while other dams like Bunji (7,100MW), Dasu (4,320MW) and Golen Gol (106MW) have a massive potential of producing hydel generation and it would also come in national grid in the coming years.

The Asian Development Bank lends up to $100 million to U.K.-based International Power PLC (IPR.L) to build a Pakistani gas-fired plant to help address the country’s energy crisis. The 404-megawatt power plant in Baluchistan is scheduled to be completed by September 2013.

if for a moment if we  ignore all our natural reserves like coal, water and gas then still there is hope for survival if honesty with own profession is there. We could easily produced electricity by other resources like ethanol (Bio Fuel), Bio mass, solar plants, wind, rain, geothermal heat etc.

The traditional energy sources are no longer abundant as they are rapidly being depleted due to increase in population and pace of development. Pakistan is very fortunate in the sense that renewable sources of energy can meet its entire energy requirement, though its ratio with non renewable energy (NRE) is desired on technical ground. It is indispensable to find search and research on renewable energy (RE) sources so that NRE is replaced with RE and the present modulation of development may not only maintained but also improved with passage of time.

Pakistan simply needs some team to work for just Pakistan. Pakistan must be protected from corrupt and incompetent persons, ministers and President.

We hope those in power and those with influence, will finally pay heed and stop artificially quelling Pakistan’s natural growth rate; a number which will approach or exceed 10 per cent with even the smallest of strategic investments in promising sectors like agriculture.


Climate Change Top Election Search Topic

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Given the nature and magnitude of the challenge, national action alone is insufficient. No nation can address this challenge on its own. No region can insulate itself from these climate changes. That is why we need to confront climate change within a global framework, one that guarantees the highest level of international cooperation, said by Secretary General of the United Nations, opening address of the High-Level Event on Climate Change, 24 September, 2007.

Asian countries including Pakistan face the greatest risk from severe climate change, which could force millions of people to flee their homes and trigger environmental migration, according to an Asian Development Bank report. The report titled “Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific” says Bangladesh, India, Maldives and Pakistan face the greatest risk, but Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, China and South Korea are also especially vulnerable.

Campaign against Climate Change Logo

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Publics of the Pakistan in recent years have largely disapproved of how the Government of Pakistan totally ignored the grave climate change issue. China, the U.S. and India seem to be most reluctant to sign up to the EU’s “road map” pointing towards the next climate treaty that expires the next year, have refused to commit to legal targets. This has raised the prospect that no country will have the right targets to cut emissions after 2012.said Artur Runge-Metzger, the EU’s lead envoy on the environment.

From the World Bank commissioned report in 2009: “Public attitudes toward climate change: findings from a multi-country poll”,comes this interesting look at country wide attitudes to climate change.

Another study, conducted by the NOAA and colleagues at the Cooperative Institute for Research on Environmental Sciences (CIRES), was published in the Journal of Climate and says that climate change from greenhouse gases explains close to half the increased dryness in the region. Observations and model simulations show a shift to drier conditions in the Mediterranean beginning in the 1970s. It might be pertinent to mention here that Asia was the worst hit area due to most severe change in climate. Pakistan is one of the countries that have been severely hit in the recent years by disastrous effects of climate change including flash floods and devastating earthquakes.

“Developed nations are not guilty of causing the climate change that developing nations claim to suffer”, said Tom Harris, executive director of ICSC which is headquartered in Ottawa, Canada. “Climate changes all the time—both warming and cooling—due to natural causes and there is nothing that we can do to stop it. However, to the degree possible, and considering our economic circumstances, developed nations still have a moral obligation to devote a proportion of their foreign aid to helping the world’s most vulnerable people adapt to natural climate events.”

English: UN Climate Talks 2010. Cancun, Mexico...

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Human activities have caused the extinction of plants and animals at some hundreds or thousands of times faster than what the natural rate would have been as Mr. Kiyo Akasaka, Under-Secretary-General for Communications and Public Information, in the Japanese city of Kanazawa said.

“We cannot reverse extinction. We can, however, prevent future extinction of other species right now. For the next 10 years our commitment to protecting more than eight million species, and our wisdom in contributing to a balance of life, will be put to a test,” Mr. Kiyo Akasaka said.

Species can adapt to gradual changes in their environment through evolution, but climate change often moves too quickly for them to do so. It’s not the absolute temperature, then, but the rate of change that matters. Put simply, if climate change is large enough, quick enough, and on a global scale, it can be the perfect ingredient for a mass extinction.

We can’t tell the future of evolution, but we can look at the past for reference.


We believe that electricity exists, because its life line of the countries,and the electric company keeps sending us bills for it, although we cannot consume it all 24 hours. ”Pakistan is in the grip of a serious energy crisis that is affecting all sectors of the economy and the various segments of the society. Luckily Pakistan has blessed by many types of resources but lack of attention and sincerity among authority leaders and concerned department all resources are just for name of appreciations rather than utilization.
For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan’s supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity.
Pakistan’s energy infrastructure is not well developed, to a certain extent it is considered to be underdeveloped and poorly managed. Currently the country is facing severe energy crisis. Even despite the fact that of strong economic growth, rising energy demand during past decade, no serious efforts have been made to install new capacity of generation.
Besides, rapid demand growth, transmission losses due to outdated infrastructure, power theft, and seasonal reductions in the availability of hydropower have worsened the situation. Consequently, the demand exceeds supply and hence load-shedding is a common phenomenon through power shutdown. The power cuts during this time amounted to 20-22 hours a day in most small cities and even cities like Karachi were seeing 18+ hours of load shedding.
Pakistan needs around 15,000 to 20000 MW electricity per day, however, currently it is able to produce about 11,500 MW per day hence there is a shortfall of about 4000 to 9000 MW per day.
According to an official report, the gap between firm supply and peak hours demand has already been shrunk to three digit (440 MW) during this fiscal and will slip into negative columns next year (-441 MW) and further intensify to (-1,457 MW) during the financial year 2006-07.

The report maintained that the difference between firm supply and peak demand is estimated at 5,529 MW by the year 2009-10 when firm electricity supply will stand at 15,055 MW against peak demand of 20,584 MW.

The National Assembly Standing Committee for Water and Power meeting was held in Islamabad under the chairmanship of Ghulam Mustafa Shah.Briefing the committee, Water and Power Development Authority Chairman Shakil Durrani said that Mangla Dam would be filled up to 1210 feet by the end of this year. This will enhance the water storing capacity of the dam by 0.8 million acres.
The WAPDA chairman said that load shedding cannot be overcome until 2018 and power demand would soar to 130,000 megawatt by 2030.

He said that India could not build dams on three western rivers, adding that the 16 kilometer long tunnel of Jhelum Hydro Project had been constructed.














Supply and Demand Position: 2008-2020 (MW)
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Existing Generation 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903
Proposal / Committed Generation 530 4,235 7,226 10,115 10,556 13,307 13,520 14,607 16,134 18,448 18,448 18,448 18,448
Total Existing/Committed Generation 16,484 20,138 23,129 26,018 26,459 29,210 29,423 30,510 32,037 34,351 34,351 34,351 34,351
Expected Available Generation 13,146 16,110 18,503 20,814 21,167 23,368 23,538 24,408 25,630 27,481 27,481 27,481 27,481
Demand (Summer Peak) 16,484 17,868 19,352 20,874 22,460 24,126 25,919 28,029 30,223 35,504 34,918 37,907 41,132
Surplus/Deficit Generation -3,338 -1,758 8 -849 -60 -1,293 -758 -2,381 -3,621 -4,593 -8,023 -7,437 -10,426 -13,651

During 2010 Pakistan floods and 2005 Kashmir earthquake power stations, power distribution and transmission and other energy infrastructures were damaged. During the floods the recently constructed Jinnah hydroelectric power plant was flooded in addition to severe damages to transmission and distribution network and installations while several power plants and refineries were threatened by rising waters and had to be shut down. Natural gas field output had to be reduced as the flood waters approached the wells. There has also been some concern by Pakistani nuclear activists over the effect of natural disasters on nuclear plants especially over the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex, since the plant lies over a geological fault. Due to over reliance of Pakistan on dams for electricity generation some environmental impacts of dams such as submergence of usable/ecological land and their negative impact on Pakistan’s mangrove forests due to loss of river silt load, as well as increased risk of severe floods have become evident
The entire circular debt system has plagued the entire system as banks, PSO, OGDCL, PPL, POL and refineries are all on the verge of collapse, a corporate lawyer and energy expert associated with some foreign investors in the local power sector has said.
“Short-sightedness of experts and the government is not only restricted to the power sector, but also the entire economy is stuck with it,” Intezar Mehdi said adding, “Ill-consequences of bad energy and petroleum policy, or the lack of a holistic view has now been termed as circular debt.”
The electricity prices charged from the end-consumers and its recovery had been the victim of government’s incompetence and is influenced by the government of Pakistan’s whims, compulsions and political calculus. As a result, National Transmission and Dispatch Company (NTDC) are unable to recover full cost recovery and surplus, he said.
About the main reason of non-recovery, Mehdi said that one of the reasons for non-recovery is the non-payment of bills by the customers. However, he said, a huge chunk could not be recovered due to misreporting, disguised losses and theft, masqueraded as inflated bills.

Mehdi said that there is no consistent gas supply for the four gas and diesel-based IPPs at Muridke, Balloki, Qadirabad and Sheikhupura, which got gas on rotational basis. The alternative, diesel firing, is apparently worse as the incremental cash loss is higher, hence, more circular debt, he said.

Need of the hour is in the future, Pakistan must adopt other technologies for generating power from renewable energy sources, such as municipal waste and landfill methane geothermal recovery, anaerobic biomass gasification, biological fuels, fuel cells and ocean waves. “Faith is like electricity. You can’t see it, but you can see the light.” This is very famous quotation but as now days electricity shortage is on full boom so how we faith on government for providing us 24 non stop electricity because to further turn darker Pakistan to brighter Pakistan which is not in favor of few un seen so called Powers.


The United Nations has launched the Decade on Biodiversity with Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urging humanity to live in harmony with nature and to preserve and properly manage its riches for the prosperity of current and future generations.
decade of biodiversity It is now widely recognized that climate change and biodiversity are interconnected. Biodiversity is affected by climate change, with negative consequences for human well-being, but biodiversity, through the ecosystem services it supports, also makes an important contribution to both climate-change mitigation and adaptation.

After extended negotiations in Durban , the 194 parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed on a package of decisions, known as the Durban Platform, which include the launch of a protocol or legal instrument that would apply to all members, a second commitment period for the existing Kyoto Protocol and the launch of the Green Climate Fund.

decade of biodiversity
The 194 countries negotiating here also agreed that such a universal plan must be completed by 2015 at the latest. For the first time, all major nations—developed and developing—have agreed to a roadmap that would combat climate change reducing greenhouse gas emissions to control global warming that would not come into effect before 2020.

Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon welcomed last week the conclusion decision; he was gratified that countries reached decisions to implement the Cancun Agreements, which were created at last year’s conference in Mexico. The new measures include setting up a Technology Mechanism that will promote access by developing countries to clean, low-carbon technologies, and establishing an Adaptation Committee that will coordinate adaptation activities on a global scale.

biodiversity
The European Union said the world’s three nations that pollute the most are the biggest obstacles to setting a time line to a legally binding pact on global warming and that it won’t “cave in” on its demands.

Currently, only industrial countries have legally binding emissions targets under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Although those commitments expire next year,  they will be extended for another five years under the accord adopted  — a key demand by developing countries seeking to preserve the only existing treaty regulating carbon emissions.

But environmentalists and representatives from smaller countries were underwhelmed by the deal, saying the urgency of the problem of climate change demanded a shorter time line for action. These people also said the deal could be easily ignored by major economies responsible for mass emissions.

 

tuvalu

The United States never signed the Kyoto treaty because it did not accept its division between developed and developing countries. Todd D. Stern, the chief American climate negotiator, said he was hopeful that talks in coming years would produce a more equitable arrangement.


Campaign against Climate Change Logo

Image via Wikipedia

As Ban Ki Moon said in September 2007 “ Given the nature and magnitude of the challenge, national action alone is insufficient. No nation can address this challenge on its own. No region can insulate itself from these climate changes. That is why we need to confront climate change within a global framework, one that guarantees the highest level of international cooperation”

Asian countries including Pakistan face the greatest risk from severe climate change, which could force millions of people to flee their homes and trigger environmental migration, according to an Asian Development Bank report.flooding china

The report titled “Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific” says Bangladesh, India, Maldives and Pakistan face the greatest risk, but Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, China and South Korea are also especially vulnerable.

Public opinion in  Pakistan in recent years has largely disapproved of how the Government of Pakistan totally ignored the problem of climate change. China, the U.S. and India seem the most reluctant to sign up to the EU’s “road map” pointing toward the next climate treaty after the limits in the current one expire next year, have refused to commit to legal targets, raising the prospect that no country will have targets to cut emissions after 2012

From the World Bank commissioned report in 2009: “Public attitudes toward climate change: findings from a multi-country poll”,comes this interesting look at country wide attitudes to climate change.

 

So it’s interesting to look at how these views affected country attitudes at Durban recently.

Pakistan is one of the countries that has been severely hit in recent years by the disastrous effects of climate change including flash floods and devastating earthquakes. Public opinion looks set to remain far ahead of governmental action here.


Fogged

Image by kendoman26 via Flickr

In wintertime, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtun khawan and upper Sindh areas are affected by Fog. As cold air from the north recedes and day temperatures fall sufficiently, warm and humid air comes in from the sea. During this time, the warm and humid air may be cooled sufficiently by the underlying cold surface. This condensation of water vapour into droplets and hence resulted in the formation of fog.
According to the Met Office, due to the falling temperatures and high level of humidity, fog is likely to thicken in the plains of the country in the days to come and there are no chances of rain anywhere in the country for at least one week.
Motorway was closed due to severe fog, to all kinds of traffic from Peshawar to Rashkai and from Niaz Baig to Pindi Bhattian and Sheikhupura as fog reduced visibility to nil at 7:30am. It was opened at around 9:30am only after an improvement in the visibility.
The Met Office reported fog in Lahore, Multan, Jhelum, Sialkot, and Gujranwala and even in few areas of Sukkur during the early hours of Friday. The best time for driving on motorway is 10am to 6pm suggested by motorway police. They also suggested that people might contact 130 for helpline to get information about fog on motorways.
Fog is a collection of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth’s surface. Fog may form either by cooling air to its dew point, or by adding moisture to air near the ground. Fog is classified by the way it forms. Formation may involve more than one process.
Fog forms when the difference between temperature and dew point is generally less than 2.5 °C or 4 °F. Fog can form suddenly, and can dissipate just as rapidly, depending what side of the dew point the temperature is on.
A shallow layer of fog on the ground reduces visibility more in the horizontal than in the vertical. Its fog reduces horizontal visibility to 1/4 mile or less. Dense fog usually creates travelling problems and delays.
Fog effects on driving and flying: Fog has a great effect on traffic. Fog may be synonymous with danger and moral blindness for drivers and pilots. The first and foremost thing that is required for a driving and flying is good visibility. Heavy fog considered to be a big hurdle for driving and for flying too. Even if a flight is taken during foggy conditions, its landing becomes almost impossible from a safety point of view. In such cases, there is no option other than diverting the flying machine to a base where there is minimum or no fog.
Most people have heard of the horrendous chain reaction accidents which occur in fog. It is hardly surprising, given the effects of fog on perception. Fog obviously produces accidents because a driver cannot see as far ahead. However, foggy conditions also promote accidents because they affect perceptual judgments of speed and distance. The effects are the result of reduced contrast. We see objects, not based on their absolute brightness or darkness, but on their difference between the object brightness and background. Fog lowers contrast substantially, causing objects to become fainter and less distinct.
Types of Fog:
Ground Fog also called as Mist – Water droplets so small that they are floating in the air. Because mist droplets do not fall, mist is a type of fog. This type of fog is prevalent in coastal areas where moisture is abundant. This fog obscures less than 60% of the sky and does not extend to the base of any overhead clouds
Radiation fog is formed by the cooling of land after sunset by thermal radiation in calm conditions with clear sky. It is more common in autumn and early winter. It is present almost everywhere.
Wind fog occurs when moist air passes over a cool surface by wind (advection) and is cooled. It is more common near sea area.
Valley fog or Tule fog forms in mountain valleys, often during winter. It is the result of a temperature inversion caused by heavier cold air settling into a valley, with warmer air passing over the mountains above.
Upslope fog or hill fog forms when winds blow air up a slope, adiabatically cooling it as it rises, and causing the moisture in it to condense. This often causes freezing fog on mountaintops, where the cloud ceiling would not otherwise be low enough.
Artificial fog is artificially generated fog that is usually created by vaporizing water and aerosols or glycol-based or glycerin-based fluid.
Smog (combination of smoke and fog) – It’s visible air pollution in urban areas. It looks like dirty fog in large cities like Lahore, Gujranwala, Multan, Jhelum, Sialkot, and sukkar etc.
Visibility in smog and mist vary. Smog reduces visibility to less than 1 km (5/8 statute mile), whereas mist reduces visibility to no less than 1 km (5/8 statute mile).


Noise has become a very important “stress factor” in the environment of man. The term “noise pollution” has been recently used to signify the hazard of sounds which are consequence of modern-day development, leading to health hazards of different type.

Continuous exposure to high decibel noise can result in some adverse effects on your health. One of these hazards is acoustic trauma to the ears caused when they are subjected to the sound of an intensity of 85 dB or more without respite.
The health hazards of noise pollution can be categorized into physiological and psychological hazards. While the former includes hearing loss, hypertension, disturbance in sleep patterns etc., the later includes problems such as annoyance, aggression and stress.

According to a medical health guide lines, although high levels of noise for short time can lead to noise induced hearing loss early but usually 10 years of exposure is generally required for significant hearing loss to occur. This is preventable but irreversible. Hearing impairment is an increase in the threshold of hearing. Most commonly, noise-induced hearing loss involves injury to inner ear structures, particularly stereo cilia, the hair cells, and therefore known as a sensory neural hearing loss. Stereo cilia can be temporarily damaged by noise above 90db and permanent damage occurs with longer exposure. Excessive noise exposure during foetal life may result in high-frequency hearing loss in newborns. It can also cause tinnitus i.e. a ringing, roaring, buzzing, or clicking in the ears.
Most recent in human beings the major negative impact is insomnia (Sleep disturbance) which is root cause of many diseases, although more research is in progress. Healthy sleep is a prerequisite for good physiological and mental functioning. It may cause increased blood pressure, changes in heart rate and increased fatigue which may also lead to a devastating stress related conditions, noise above 80db may increase aggressive behaviour

Although most developed nations have government agencies responsible for the protection of the environment, no nation has a single body that regulates noise pollution. Transportation noise is usually regulated by the relevant transportation ministry, health-related work noise is often regulated by health ministries and worker’s unions, and entertainment noise such as loud music is a criminal offence in many areas. Little is currently being done to reduce noise pollution in developed countries.

This fact is proven by various studies in all major cities but the problem of noise pollution is also present in many smaller cities, from where no data is available.

Road Traffic Noise is another most widespread source of noise nuisance in the urban areas of Pakistan. The situation is getting alarming with increase in traffic density on city roads, particularly in Karachi.

According to Environmental Protection Agency, NWFP Government, campaign was started against noise pollution and use of pressure horns by public and private vehicles in Peshawar. During the whole campaign (1999-2002) total 3804 pressure horns were removed from 6068 vehicles in 178 working days. Moreover, this Agency have been checked 6630 Rickshaw for noise pollution during Jun-11997-2005, in which 3979 did not qualify the NEQS (85 db) while 2651 Rickshaws qualified NEQS.

According to a medical research of Pakistan (2008) almost 75% of public drivers in Lahore are affected by noise pollution, and more in Lahore.

Government of Punjab constituted a committee to address the issue of use of

Pressure horns in trucks and buses. A no. of meetings had been held in the past and more than 80% illegal

Horns were removed from intra city route buses of Lahoreon early 2001 but for other cities no action were taken now still mostly drivers use all types of horns to make their way easy to road.

Cities Names Maximum Noise record levels db(A) Minimum Noise record levels db(A) Average  Sources
Gujranwala 100 41 72.5 JICA Report 2003
Faisalabad 100 47 72 Irfan, L.2002
Islamabad 104.5 47 72.5 Shaukat, L. 2002
Rawalpindi 108.5 48 72.5 Mehdi ,M.R.et al. 2002
Karachi 88.9 62.4 76.5 Tajik S.H. 2001
Peshawar 708.5 68.2 86 EPA

But what do governments do in a proactive way to inform their citizens about control of pollution. Under Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – which was agreed in 1992 and entered into force in 1994 – nearly 200 governments agreed to promote actions to develop and implement “educational and public awareness programs on climate change and its effects” according to motor vehicle rules, 1969’s section 154,155 and 158 its government’s responsibility to control all types of noise pollution.

As government level no, sufficient efforts are doing so its public‘s responsibility to take following few steps to control this pollution hazards.

Steps to reduce noise pollution: There is a dire need for legislation to control increasing noise pollution inside the city

  • Plantation plays important role in reduction of noise pollution as plants absorbs noise of high frequencies. A dense ever green hedge even reduces noise of microphones by 20dB.
  • Industrial areas and workshops must be out of cities as they produce high frequency waves of noise.
  • Railway tracks, aerodrome and highways must be located outside the cities.
  • Vehicle must be free from pressure horn but having specific well performed vehicle silencers.
  • Vehicle conditional checking made compulsory.
  • Strict rules and regulation must be there as recently in Pakistan no specific legislation present to control noise; most important is if rules would make their application made strictly applicable.
  • More Scientific research and knowledge must be promoted to know the reality behind the noise and all types of sounds.
  • Public awareness is very essential and important for control of pollution of noise. For this television, radio, internet and newspapers should run campaigns for wide publicity.
  • Noise monitoring team must be prepared which perform their duty along with traffic police to control vehicle noise pollution from the vehicle engine and horns.
  • Blue areas must be declared as silence zone same ruled must be applied near hospitals and schools areas.


This year will be world’s tenth warmest on record since 1850, and the highest ever in a year which experienced a La Niña event, a meteorological phenomenon which is supposed to have a cooling influence on Earth’s atmosphere, a United Nations agency reported this week..

The report was released in The 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Durban, South Africa, (from November 28 –December 9, 2011), where thousands of representatives from governments, international organizations and civil society are meeting to advance ways to cut global carbon emissions and pollution.

Geography compounded with high levels of poverty and population density has rendered Asia and the Pacific countries especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change with increase in temperature. Climate change is existent and the region faces scary climate-related improvement challenges. Asia and the Pacific, with over 50% of the world’s population and two-thirds of its poor, is deeply vulnerable to climate change-linked events such as rising sea levels by melting of ice and glaciers and increasingly severe droughts and floods by disturbance of water cycle due to severe increase in heat.

The effects of global warming are iniquitous; suffering mainly poor and developed countries unfortunately due to their geographical presence. Flooding was main culprit for all major drastic changes (as no reason here to explain due to increase in temperature) Asia and the Pacific had seen more than 30 million people displaced by environmental disasters in 2010, according to data from the ADB (Asian Development Bank) and Reuters. The region is home to more than 4 billion people.

More than five million Pakistanis are now estimated to require humanitarian assistance as a result of this year’s floods, are mainly in Sindh and Balochistan provinces, with 25 per cent of them women and 50 per cent children United Nations aid agencies reported on 25Nov, 2011. Almost 800,000 homes were destroyed or badly damaged in the floods, which began in August, and nearly 750,000 people were still displaced at the end of October.

After such drastic flood almost 5.3 million – number of people affected by this year’s rains, which began falling in late August.
370,000 people estimated to still be living in camps in Sindh.
200,000 – People made homeless.
1.7 million acres of arable land affected.
300 – Estimated kill in three months

In Pakistan in mid 2010, at least 11 million people were forced to leave their home areas, and had their homes and livelihoods destroyed by the flood waters.

The Pakistani government was widely criticized last year for its stuttering response to the worst floods in the country’s history, which affected at least 18 million people and inundated one-fifth of Pakistan — an area the size of the United Kingdom.
Sea-level rise represents an existential threat in future to many small island nations also. Being land scarce and low lying, they are exposed to the risks of intensifying weather events such as damage caused by inundation, extreme winds, and flooding from storms. The United Nations estimates that by 2020, 13 of the world’s 25 mega cities, most of them situated in low-lying coastal areas, will be in Asia and the Pacific. In many mega cities, more than half the population is crowded into densely populated slums that are at risk from flooding and where settlements lack basic protective infrastructure.

As climate-related risks intensify, there will be a need to respond proactively to build resilience through preclusion and attentiveness rather than through relief and response. Cities can minimize the risk of destructive floods, by improving drainage and sanitation systems and imposing a solid waste management scheme that promotes efficient garbage collection and reduces the use of plastics. Governments need to develop integrated urban plans that address urgent issues on water supply, flooding, transportation, and solid waste, a climate change.

But what do governments do in a proactive way to inform their citizens about climate change. Under Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – which was agreed in 1992 and entered into force in 1994 – nearly 200 governments agreed to promote actions to develop and implement “educational and public awareness programs on climate change and its effects”.


This year will be the world’s tenth warmest on record since 1850, and the highest ever in a year which experienced a La Niña event, a meteorological phenomenon which is supposed to have a cooling influence on Earth’s atmosphere, a United Nations agency reported this week.unfccc-oxfam

The report was released today in The 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Durban, South Africa, (from November 28 –December 9, 2011), where thousands of representatives from governments, international organizations and civil society are meeting to advance ways to cut global carbon emissions and pollution.

Geography compounded with high levels of poverty and population density has rendered Asia and the Pacific countries especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change with increase in temperature. Climate change means the region faces scary climate-related challenges.

Asia and the Pacific, with over 50% of the world’s population and two-thirds of its poor, is deeply vulnerable to climate change-linked events such as rising sea levels by melting of ice and glaciers and increasingly severe droughts and floods by disturbance of water cycle due to severe increase in heat.

The effects of global warming are iniquitous; poor and developing countries suffer disproportionately due to their geographical presence.

Asia and the Pacific had seen more than 30 million people displaced by environmental disasters in 2010, according to data from the ADB (Asian Development Bank) and Reuters. The region is home to more than 4 billion people. Recent floods in Cambodia, Pakistan, Philippines, the People Republic of China (PRC) and Thailand offer a somber lesson. The last two countries were badly affected more by 2008 flood also.

thailand floods 2011

Thailand’s recent flooding has been described as its worst in over 50 years. There have been over 600 reported deaths and over 3 million people affected. About 900 factories in industrial areas north of Bangkok have been swamped, disrupting supply chains of international firms such as Toyota Motor Corp, Sony Corp and Lenovo Group Ltd. It is estimated the country’s gross domestic product could decline by up to 2% as a result of the devastation.

The region also accounted for 34 percent of recorded disasters, 90 percent of people affected, 32 percent of deaths and 33 percent of economic losses worldwide from natural disasters from 2005 to 2010.

In neighboring Cambodia, the deadliest floods since 2000 have killed at least 247 people while more than 100 have died in Vietnam, mostly in the southern Mekong Delta.

cambodia floods

More than five million Pakistanis are now estimated to require humanitarian assistance as a result of this year’s floods. They  are mainly in Sindh and Balochistan provinces, with 25 per cent of them women and 50 per cent children.

Almost 800,000 homes were destroyed or badly damaged in the floods, which began in August, and nearly 750,000 people were still displaced at the end of October.

Sea-level rise represents an existential threat to many small island nations also. Being land scarce and low lying, they are exposed to the risks of intensifying weather events such as damage caused by inundation, extreme winds, and flooding from storms. The United Nations estimates that by 2020, 13 of the world’s 25 mega cities, most of them situated in low-lying coastal areas, will be in Asia and the Pacific. In many mega cities, more than half the population is crowded into densely populated slums that are at risk from flooding and where settlements lack basic protective infrastructure.pakistan flood

As climate-related risks intensify, there will be a need to respond proactively to build resilience through preclusion and attentiveness rather than through relief and response. Cities can minimize the risk of destructive floods, by improving drainage and sanitation systems and imposing a solid waste management scheme that promotes efficient garbage collection and reduces the use of plastics. Governments need to develop integrated urban plans that address urgent issues on water supply, flooding, transportation, and solid waste, a climate change.

But what do governments do in a proactive way to inform their citizens about climate change. Under Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – which was agreed in 1992 and entered into force in 1994 – nearly 200 governments agreed to promote actions to develop and implement “educational and public awareness programs on climate change and its effects”.


Energy is the lifeline of a nation. The economic engine and the wheels of industry, agriculture and business need energy to move forward. Unfortunately in Pakistan, due to energy crisis (increasing gap in energy demand versus capacity, Pakistan’s economic, industrial and social growth has been greatly constrained. Pakistan is spending almost 20 per cent of its foreign exchange on fossil fuels imports. Annually $7 billion is being eaten away in import of conventional energy resources that is equivalent to 40 per cent of total imports by the country, but the country still lacks far behind in tapping the vast potential of alternate energy resources.

A silhouette of Pakistan primary energy resources shows Pakistan is highly depending on conservative sources of energy. Its share in energy supply mix is highly dependent on oil, liquid petroleum and natural gas. The primary commercial energy supplies during 2007-2008 were 62.9 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe). The share of natural gas in primary energy supplies during 2007-2008 was 47.5% followed by oil 30.5%, hydro electricity 10.9%, coal 9.2%, nuclear electricity 12%, LPG 0.7%, and imported electricity 0.1%.
It is of high concerning that NEPRA has increased power tariff by 94.9 percent for domestic, 67.6 percent for commercial and 77 percent for industrial consumers during the period of Mar, 2008 to August, 2010. At present, Pakistan get 30 percent generation from hydel and 70 percent from thermal while in 1974 this ratio was reversed.

Current electricity consumption by Pakistan produced by different means is shown as following

Gas consumption  per capita 187 cu meters
Electricity consumption per capita 430kW/hr
Coal consumption per capita 0.03 tons
Oil consumption per day per 1000 people 2.2 barrels
Sugar cane residue can be used as a biofuel

Image via Wikipedia

 
Pakistan has almost 3,000 MW power generation potential in sugar industry through biogas, but it is hardly producing some 700MW. A research Study conducted by the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, suggests that the country’s energy demand is expected to increase three fold by 2050, but supply position is not inspiring in anyway. In such alarming conditions the renewable and sustainable energy resources are the best substitute to the conventional fuels and energy sources. It estimates that Pakistan has almost 159 million animals that produce almost 652 million kilogram of manure daily from cattle and buffalo only, which can be used to generate 16.3 million-cubic-meters biogas per day and 21 million tonnes of bio fertiliser per year. It can easily compensate around 20 per cent of nitrogen and 66 per cent of phosphorus requirement in the crop fields, the study estimates.

Brazil would invest in Ethanol and Bio Fuel sector in Pakistan to overcome the prevailing energy crisis of the country. The Brazilian Embassy would facilitate the Pakistani business community to enhance the bilateral trade between the two countries. This was stated by the Brazilian Ambassador Alfredo Leoni while talking to the traders and industrialists during his visit to the Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce and Industry (RCCI).

Ali Raza, occasion President RCCI said that Brazil has achieved immense progress in agriculture, mining and service sectors. “Brazil must help Pakistan for the betterment of the said sectors in the country”, he added. Trade volume between the both countries is around $170 million which is very low; it is need of the hour to promote the trade activities between the two friend countries.

In this energy   predicament food scarcity is also a big issue, Food security exists when all people all the times, have physical and economical access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for active and healthy life

 Population growth has also contributed to the growing demand for food. According to the World of Food Science, since 2000 the population growth has grown by more than 800 million and continues to grow by more than 80 million annually. So in future it might be threat to nation to produce electricity via biofules.

However many believe Biofuels cannot be blamed for the recent food crisis. According to Alfonso Rivera Revilla, Chairman of the Insight Group PLC, “Not all Biofuels are equal; the Moringa oleifera tree used as biofuel has a higher recovery and quality of oil than other crops, the tree has no direct competition with food crops. It has also no direct competition with farm-land as it can be grown for food and fuel at the same time. The Moringa tree thrives in land where most agricultural produce would not survive and apart from biofuel its greatest contribution is its nutritional value to underdeveloped countries.” Bamboo tree also consider being help in this way of production of electricity as also it easy to grow and help in reduction green house gases.

 Best way to overcome the problem is to produce sufficient crops and trees which help in production of energy then utilize this biota in production of energy.

 

 


In the course of growing concerns about unstable oil supplies and the impact of fossil fuels on global warming, bio fuels are receiving increased attention. Putting ethanol instead of gasoline in your tank saves oil and is probably no worse for the environment than burning gasoline.

Bio fuels, which are made from corn, palm oil, sugar cane and other agricultural products, have been seen by many as a cleaner and cheaper way to meet the world’s soaring energy needs than with greenhouse-gas emitting fossil fuels. Ethanol is considered as major bio fuel.

Ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel made by fermenting and distilling crops that have been broken down into simple sugars. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for non-diesel engines (spark ignition) or as an additive to gasoline engines In the U.S., ethanol is mostly manufactured from starchy crops like corn.

There are two types of ethanol fuel that are commonly referred to- e85 and e10. E85 is a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline that’s used in flex-fuel vehicles. E10 is a gasoline blend that contains up to 10 percent ethanol.
Brazil, which produces large amounts of ethanol, uses sugar cane to manufacture the fuel. Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of ethanol in the world and has a goal of having all of its vehicles capable of running on ethanol or gasoline, in the next few years. Countries like Brazil have made ethanol a viable alternative energy fuel because they have devoted time to research and government funding.

“Replacing only five percent of the nation’s diesel consumption with bio diesel would require diverting approximately 60 percent of today’s soy crops to bio diesel production,” says Matthew Brown, an energy consultant and former energy program director at the National Conference of State Legislatures.

European leaders have decided that at least 10 percent of fuels will come from bio fuels, like ethanol, by 2020, and the U.S. Congress is working on a proposal that would increase production of bio fuels by seven times by 2022. With oil prices at record highs, bio fuels have become an attractive alternative energy source for poor countries, some of which spend six times more in importing oil than on health care.

But environmentalists have warned that the bio fuel craze can do as much or more damage to the environment as dirty fossil fuels, a concern reflected throughout the report, which was released Tuesday in New York by U.N.-Energy, a consortium of 20 U.N. agencies and programs.

Much of the Amazon Rainforest is being destroyed every year to produce bio-fuel crops. So now we see the consequences in Africa. With a world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2025, this could become a massive tragedy with starvation leading to military conflict and genocides several times bigger than what happened in Rwanda as a consequence of ethnic conflicts. Bio-fuels are not a green solution. We cannot pretend to save the planet by condemning billions to death by starvation. Many oceanic areas have been almost completely depleted of life and now we are facing the prospect of eradicating entire inland habitats.

In a 2005 study, Cornell University researcher David Pimental factored in the energy needed to grow crops and convert them to bio fuels and concluded that producing ethanol from corn required 29 percent more energy than ethanol is capable of generating. Pimental found similar problems with making biodiesel from soybeans. “There is just no energy benefit to using plant biomass for liquid fuel,” Pimentel says.

European Union countries must drop their bio fuels targets or else risk plunging more Africans into hunger and raising carbon emissions, according to Friends of the Earth (FoE).

Natural disasters including floods in Pakistan and a heat wave in Russia have wiped out crops in recent weeks and intensified fears of widespread food shortages.

Half of the 3.2m hectares (ha) of bio fuel land identified – in countries from Mozambique to Senegal – is linked to 11 British companies, more than any other country.

A market has been created by British and EU laws requiring the blending of rising amounts of bio fuels into petrol and diesel, but the rules were condemned as unethical and “backfiring badly” in April by a Nuffield Council on Bio ethics commission. In the UK, only 31% of bio fuels used meet voluntary environmental standards intended to protect water supplies, soil quality and carbon stocks in the source country.

Another risk is that bio fuel use could increase carbon emissions by increasing destruction of forests when displaced local farmer’s clear land. The Institute of European Environmental Policy recently said carbon released from deforestation linked to bio fuels could exceed carbon savings by 35% in 2011 rising to 60% in 2018. Currently, this indirect impact is not considered in European sustainability guidelines.

“Use of large-scale mono cropping could lead to significant biodiversity loss, soil erosion and nutrient leaching,” it said, adding that investments in bio energy must be managed carefully, at national, regional and local levels to avoid new environmental and social problems “some of which could have irreversible consequences.”


The Art of Trees

Image by United Nations Information Service - Geneva via Flickr

The humanitarian emergency caused by few last months’ devastating floods in Asia warning that the situation could get worse, The people affected by this crisis have lost everything, and their difficulties are only just beginning two countries Pakistan and Thailand badly hit by the disaster. Hundreds of thousands of people face a struggle for survival over the next six months. Thousands of homes have been damaged, possessions destroyed and hundreds of schools, roads and health facilities are closed.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that by the year 2050 around 60 percent of the world’s population will experience severe water shortages, with 33 percent thought to be already under water stress. Water cycle has been disturbed badly in all over the world causing, food depletion, drought, flooding, rising sea level, increase in green house gases and scary food shortage. The root causes behind the scene consider deforestation mainly.

Forests cover 31% of the total global land area. These forests give home to 80% of Earth’s terrestrial biodiversity and the livelihood of 1.6 billion people around the world depends on forests. Recognizing the global importance of forests the United Nations declared 2011 as the International Year of Forests to raise awareness on conservation, multiple use and sustainable development of all types of forests.Forest as major source of climate play important role in climate change and have great significance.

Forests also have significant impact in reduction of all types of major pollutions like air, soil, Noise and even water pollutions, as trees produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide mostly and other green house gases in this way air clean. Forests clean the soil and fight soil erosion and bind the soil result in reduction of soil attrition as well provide shade and cool to surroundings they also act as wind breakers. Noise pollution reduce as trees leaves reduce frequency of sound. Water is mostly abundant component on earth and polluting continuously with passage of time but Forests here also acts as filters and slow storm water runoff…

 “Forests and trees on farms are a direct source of food and cash income for more than a billion of the world’s poorest people,” Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Assistant Director-General for Forestry Eduardo Rojas-Brails said.
“They provide both staple foods and supplemental foods. To enhance these benefits, governments and development partners should increase investments in support of sustainable forest management and rehabilitation of degraded forest lands,” he added, noting that in India, more than 50 million people depend directly on forests for subsistence, while in Laos wild foods are consumed by 80 per cent of its 6.4 million people on a daily basis.

Forests can play an even greater role in feeding the world with products ranging from vitamin-rich leaves to fruits and roots. According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), there were 4.033 billion hectares of forest or 31% of total land area standing in the world in 2010. That’s down slightly from 2000.

 The story of the world’s forests is usually a depressing one. Tropical rain forests are under pressure in South America, Asia and Africa, threatening habitat for countless species and adding billions of tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere every year. but the good news is that the rate of overall forest loss has slowed considerably, dropping from 8.3 million hectares lost a year in the 1990s to 5.2 million hectares a year, thanks in part to significant reforestation taking place throughout much of Asia.

Government and relevant authorities took serious action on the growth of trees and forests otherwise situation of survival become very difficult as we see most poor African countries especially just consider the example of Ethiopia that has lost three-quarters of its remaining trees in the last twenty-five years.

Forest cover is now down to just 3%. This land, the birthplace of all humanity, has grown barren. (It’s the usual story: the greed of the former dictatorship; unwise land policies; the desperate poor cutting trees for fuel.) Since 1985, the year of the “Live Aid” concert, food production has declined by two-thirds, and twice as many Ethiopians are going hungry.

 

 


Logo of the Food and Agriculture Organization

Image via Wikipedia

China is been hosting the ninth BASIC  (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) ministerial meet Oct 31-Nov 1. A meeting of experts will be held alongside this meeting to carve out a strategy for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of Parties 17 (COP 17) to be held in Durban, South Africa, Nov 28-Dec 9.

Politics of Green and climate change are majo issues are been discussing in this Beijing meeting, Forest as major source of climate play important role in climate change and have great significance.

Forests have four major roles in climate change: they currently contribute about one-sixth of global carbon emissions when cleared, overused or degraded; they react sensitively to a changing climate; when managed sustainably, they produce wood fuels as a benign alternative to fossil fuels; and finally, they have the potential to absorb about one-tenth of global carbon emissions projected for the first half of this century into their biomass, soils and products and store them.

“Forests and trees on farms are a direct source of food and cash income for more than a billion of the world’s poorest people,” Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Assistant Director-General for Forestry Eduardo Rojas-Briales said. “They provide both staple foods and supplemental foods. To enhance these benefits, governments and development partners should increase investments in support of sustainable forest management and rehabilitation of degraded forest lands,” he added, noting that in India, more than 50 million people depend directly on forests for subsistence, while in Laos wild foods are consumed by 80 per cent of its 6.4 million people on a daily basis.

Forests can play an even greater role in feeding the world with products ranging from vitamin-rich leaves to fruits and roots. According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), there were 4.033 billion hectares of forest or 31% of total land area standing in the world in 2010. That’s down slightly from 2000.

Characteristics of world Forests

 With 1 billion people suffering from chronic hunger, the role of forests for timber must not overshadow their important contribution to feeding many of the world’s poorest communities, and their over-exploitation for wood must be curbed, according to the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF), a 14-member group which includes several UN agencies.

The story of the world’s forests is usually a depressing one. Tropical rain forests are under pressure in South America, Asia and Africa, threatening habitat for countless species and adding billions of tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere every year. but the good news is that the rate of overall forest loss has slowed considerably, dropping from 8.3 million hectares lost a year in the 1990s to 5.2 million hectares a year, thanks in part to significant reforestation taking place throughout much of Asia.

Women also play an important part in the processing of tree and forest products, the income from which helps their families achieve food security. For instance, women use shea as a cooking fat and food accompaniment in West Africa. The harvesting and processing of shea, which is an important ingredient in chocolate and other confectionery, provides rural women with nearly 80 percent of their income.

Emmanuel Ze Meka, Executive Director of the International Tropical Timber Organization, noted, “food products are the fastest growing component of non-timber forest products in many tropical countries. And adding value to the forest makes it more likely to remain forest rather than converted to other uses.

As a part of the developing world, BASIC countries hope to reach consensus on climate change through candid and deep discussions to lay the groundwork for the upcoming Durban conference, Xie Zhenhua, vice minister of the National Development and Reform Commission, also China’s chief negotiator of climate change  also attend the meeting. This was the six meeting of BASIC Countries Hope finally the might agreed on some environmental friendly solutions that must be practicable.


As earth is considered to be 4600 million years old and we as major living creatures harming it badly by different types of pollution production. The Earth’s temperature is rising. We can argue about whether it is a short-term or long-term trend, or whether it is natural variation or man-induced, but it is warming.

 Its greatness of nature which, correct our mistakes by itself, but we don’t give too much harm that it in return give us just punishment (as few we are facing in form of floods, lava eruption, drought and famines etc).  

But now it’s our duty to pay something to cure our mother earth, a normal person helps it by just planting a tree in its surrounding because trees are co2 absorber. Scientist and other experts of their own field working much more to form the substitute of trees which can sink co2 an in return decrease global warming and it drastic effects.

The idea for formation of synthetic tress was given by many geoscientist and environmental experts but mainly finalized by Dr Klaus Lackner, of Columbia University, according to him; “they although not look-alike real trees but they could perform like them very efficiently except storing biomass as tree normally do and we use that in the form of food and other purposes. “

The design of synthetic trees looks like a large box with filters like straws or fibers through which the air travels. So if the air coming into the box has 400 parts per million (ppm) of CO2, the air coming out will have maybe 300ppm or even 200ppm. We are not trying to remove all the CO2 because our goal is to collect CO2, not to make CO2-free air.

These “trees” were being experimentally planted at the start of 2010 in the prototype stage by professor and inventor Klaus Lackner, in United Kingdom

One of these “trees” can absorb up to ten tons of carbon dioxide a day, a thousand times more than a single live tree. Each tree would cost approximately 24,000 dollars and forests of hundreds of them are being planned, estimated to reduce the United Kingdom’s carbon dioxide emissions by 60%. Sodium hydroxide is used in this process to convert carbon dioxide to sodium carbonate.

The captured carbon dioxide further might be use in small markets which need CO2 to run businesses, for example dry ice producers, greenhouses, algae ponds and enhanced oil recovery.

The study also calls for pots of algae that absorb CO2 from the atmosphere to be used to line buildings. The algae could then be used as green bio fuels for cars. The scientists argue that a single synthetic tree, which would be two-thirds as tall as a wind turbine, could capture ten tons of carbon dioxide from the air every day, making it thousands of times more efficient at absorbing CO2 than a real tree.

The trees, which would cost around £15,000, would be coated with synthetic materials that absorb CO2, which would then be removed and stored underground in depleted oil and natural gas reservoirs.

As working is going on and scientist found good results and they are quite satisfied from their experiment and in other countries this is also supposed to be work soon. Geophysicist Klaus Lackner from Columbia University wants artificial trees to restore the balance.

 And more work for co2 absorption because it might happen easily, captured Co2 of UK might be sink down in US or even in Australia. So in global warming politics, might be mostly CO2 absorber sinker would poor third world countries because they have no money for research and even no power voice power to protect as in history mainly many disease cases are found in African countries, hoping you understand what point I want to mention at end.


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The earth’s climate has been evolving continuously over millennia but the last two centuries have witnessed the development of the greenhouse problem, which threatens to change climate in an unprecedented manner. A major new mapping study by, A British firm specializing in risk analysis ,Maplecroft‘s tool, the Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI), looks at exposure to extreme weather events such as drought, cyclones, wildfires and storm surges, which translate into water stress, loss of crops and land lost to the sea. Recent studies, reviewed in a special report by UN‘s intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC), point to strengthening evidence of linked between global warming and extreme weather event. They analysing climate change vulnerability down to 25km² [15.625 mile] segments worldwide, has revealed some of the world’s fastest growing populations (7billion) are increasingly at risk from the impacts of climate related natural hazards and sea level rise.

Figure 1(b) from the Intergovernmental Panel o...

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COUNTRIES RANKING;

Maplecroft analyzed risks to 193 countries and territories on a national and sub-national basis, meaning some countries might only score a low or medium risk overall but some regions might be a high risk from storms and flooding, such as Miami in the United States.

At a national level, the CCVI rates 30 countries at ‘extreme risk,’ with the top 10 comprising of Haiti, Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, Sierra Leone, Madagascar, Cambodia, Mozambique, DR Congo, Malawi and the Philippines.

Many of the Asian countries with the fastest population growth are rated as ‘extreme risk’. These include the strategically important emerging economies of Bangladesh (2nd), Philippines (10th), Viet Nam (23rd), Indonesia (27th), India (28th) and Thailand (37th). Haiti is the country most at risk from climate change, while Iceland is the least vulnerable. Africa is especially exposed to drought, severe flooding and wildfires, the report says.

The first 102 nations are all developing ones. Italy is next, at 124, and like Greece ranks relatively highly due to the risk of drought. The UK is at 178 and the country on Earth least vulnerable to climate change, according to Maplecroft, is Iceland. “Large areas of north America and northern Europe are not so exposed to actual climate risk, and are very well placed to deal with it,” explains Charlie Beldon, principal analyst at Maplecroft.

CITY RANKING;

The survey looks at the risks facing the 20 fastest growing cities by 2020, many of which are also in countries ranked in the extreme risk category. “Population growth in these cities combines with poor government effectiveness, corruption, poverty and other socio-economic factors to increase the risks to residents and business,” said Maplecroft.

 In a parallel analysis of major cities at risk, Maplecroft pointed to Dhaka, Addis Ababa, Manila, Calcutta and the Bangladesh city of Chittagong as being most exposed. Three other Indian metropolitan areas — Chennai, Mumbai and New Delhi –also not out of danger.

High risk is Chennai, Mumbai, Kinshasa, Karachi, Lagos, Luanda, Kabul, Lahore, Delhi and Guangzhou, while Khartoum, Shanghai, Beijing and Cairo are medium risk. As many as 150 million people in the world’s big coastal cities are likely to be at risk from flooding by the 2070s, more than three times as many as now.

Miami in Florida will remain the city with the highest value of property and infrastructure assets exposed to coastal flooding caused by storm surge and damage from high winds, the report said. Record droughts in Australia and Africa, floods in Pakistan and central America, and fires in Russia and the United States may all be fuelled in part by climate change, some experts say. China (98) and the United States (160) — the world’s No. 1 and No. 2 carbon emitters — are in the “medium” and “low” risk categories, respectively.

At the other end of the spectrum, Iceland, Finland, Ireland, Sweden and Estonia top the list of nations deemed to be least at risk. With the exception of Israel and oil-rich Qatar and Bahrain, the 20 least vulnerable countries are in northern and central Europe. Current warming trends are on track to boost average global temperatures by 3.0 degrees Celsius (5.4 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels, according to some predictions.


Southeast asia

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Burma,officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar is a country in Southeast Asia, 40th largest country in the world and the second largest country in Southeast Asia. But misfortunately it is under the negative impact of climate change after Pakistan and Thailand.

Flash floods about 500 kilometers north of Yangon have killed 100 people and left more than 80 people missing, officials said Sunday.

The official put the estimated damage from the disaster at around $1.64 million. More than 1,500 people have sought refuge in two shelters in the flood-hit town of Pakokku and were visited by the military-dominated country’s second vice-president Sai Mauk Kham on Sunday morning.

Besides, 403 other houses including one clinic, one monastery and one primary school from 22 villages in Pauk Township were ravaged and 19 other people including 10 women were missing or killed in flood of Yaw creek and Kyaw creek.

Local media said six relief camps have been set up to accommodate 1,500 flood victims. More than 2,000 houses were swept away by the mass of water that hit four towns in the Magway region on Thursday and Friday.

“The water level is back to normal now,” by a local man “Transportation is still difficult as the bridge was destroyed and most telephone lines are still down,” the man added.

South-East Asia has been battered by particularly severe monsoon rains this year. The flooding is the worst to hit Thailand in decades, killing at least 356 people, displacing more than 110,000 and doing huge damage to the economy, tens of thousands of families sheltering in evacuation centres.

Heavy rains since July have inundated large parts of Southeast Asia, forcing millions from their homes. Another 336 people have died in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, an official said

Be caveat that a huge amount of water is making its way towards Bangkok and is expected to reach inner Bangkok in 3 to 7 days. Northern Bangkok is already beginning to flood and areas around the old airport are seeing rising flood water. The province immediately to the North of Bangkok is under water and for anyone in Bangkok at the moment all you have to do is drive north of Don Mueang airport and see for yourselves. Google GISTDA and look at the daily satellite photo to see the progression of the huge mass of water.

The flooding will not be like a flood after a heavy rainfall but it will be like rapid water rising and could be severe like a fresh water tsunami. After one or two days the water will start to pollute and a few days after that it will be full of garbage. Once flooded expect the flood water to remain for weeks, told by a local there.

Central, and Southern Bangkok is still safe but other areas are suffering badly. No electricity, fresh water or food. All the markets in Bangkok don’t have bottle water anymore and stuff like flash lights, dry food, instant noodles are in high demand.
A growing number of countries are pledging aid to the flood-ravaged region. Please help donate to any flood funds for Thailand and the other countries in the area. People are suffering badly.

Search and rescue work are underway, the report added.


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About three-quarters of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during the past 20 years have been due to fossil-fuel burning. Activities consuming fossil fuels include power generation, industrial/manufacturing processes, transport. The rest of carbon dioxide emissions are predominantly due to land-use change, especially deforestation.

The main drawback of fossil fuels is pollution. Burning any fossil fuel mainly produces carbon dioxide, which contributes to the “greenhouse effect”, warming the Earth. It produces more carbon dioxide than burning oil or gas. It also produces sulphur dioxide, a gas that contributes to acid rain. We can reduce this before releasing the waste gases into the atmosphere. It is a leading cause of smog, global warming, and air toxics.

Coal is particularly nasty. The attraction to coal is powerful and obvious because the Pakistan, being one of the largest coals (lignite) deposits in the world consisting of 184,123 billion tons which can produce 1000,000 MW of electricity for next three hundred years.

Microscopic particles like sulphates and carbon released from coal-burning power plants and automobiles can reflect sunlight back into space, producing a cooling effect. This can in turn influence global wind circulation patterns that underlie the monsoon system.

One 500 MW power plant generates about 3 million tons of carbon dioxide every year. Other toxic byproducts include fine-grain particulates, heavy metals like mercury, lead, chromium and nickel, trace elements such as arsenic and selenium, and various organics like dichloroethane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene.

Oxides of nitrogen and sulfur are common pollutants from coal, and are found at higher levels in anthracite than in bituminous coal.

Coal mining produces methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Methane is the naturally occurring product of the decay of organic matter as coal deposits are formed with increasing depths of burial, rising temperatures, and rising pressures over geological time. A portion of the methane produced is absorbed by the coal and later released from the coal seam and surrounding disturbed strata during the mining process.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, methane has a global warming potential 21 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time line. While burning coal in power plants is most harmful to air quality, due to the emission of dangerous gases, the process of mining can release pockets of hazardous gases.

WHO estimates more than 2 million people die every year from breathing in tiny particles present in indoor and outdoor air pollution. PM10 particles, which are particles of 10 micrometers or less, which can penetrate into the lungs and may enter the bloodstream, can cause heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and acute lower respiratory infections.

The WHO air quality guidelines for PM10 is 20 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) as an annual average, but the data released today shows that average PM10 in some cities has reached up to 300 µg/m3.

Burning coal consumption is main reckoning of air pollution this polluted air further causes land pollution and at last mix with water resultant water pollution all different types of pollution impacts negatively on both biotic and a biotic factors, like diseases in all living species and depletion in their number, disturbance of food chain, soil erosion, flooding, and drought etc.

The Ozone Layer, which is so essential for life on earth, is unfortunately being depleted due to different kinds of pollutions. The global community especially the developing countries are now facing the challenge of the elimination of Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) in foam and refrigeration industry. It is a second kind of Ozone Depleting Chemical Substance which although has low Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP), yet it possesses high Global Warming Potential (GWP).

The known health consequences of this toxic brew of air and water pollution are many, and include nervous system problems in infants and children, asthma, chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, a suite of cardiovascular problems and kidney disease. The environmental impacts are well documented, and not pretty.

  • 3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary human cause of global warming–as much carbon dioxide as cutting down 161 million trees.
  • 10,000 tons of sulphur dioxide (SO2), which causes acid rain that damages forests, lakes, and buildings, and forms small airborne particles that can penetrate deep into lungs.
  • 500 tons of small airborne particles, which can cause chronic bronchitis, aggravated asthma, and premature death, as well as haze obstructing visibility.
  • 10,200 tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx), as much as would be emitted by half a million late-model cars. NOx leads to formation of ozone (smog) which inflames the lungs, burning through lung tissue making people more susceptible to respiratory illness.
  • 720 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), which causes headaches and place additional stress on people with heart disease.
  • 220 tons of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC), which form ozone.
  • 170 pounds of mercury, where just 1/70th of a teaspoon deposited on a 25-acre lake can make the fish unsafe to eat.
  • 225 pounds of arsenic, which will cause cancer in one out of 100 people who drink water containing 50 parts per billion.
  • 114 pounds of lead, 4 pounds of cadmium, other toxic heavy metals and trace amount of uranium.

Amount of toxic gases released by Coal in Tons

Amount of toxic gases released by Coal in Tons

Pollution from coal mining may have a negative impact on public health in mining communities, according to data analyzed in a West Virginia University research study.

Miners in coal companies are on higher risk rather than people living away from mining areas. According to Hendryx, main researcher, the data show that people in coal mining communities

  • Have a 70 percent increased risk for developing kidney disease.
  • Have a 64 percent increased risk for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) such as emphysema.
  • Are 30 percent more likely to report high blood pressure (hypertension).

 

October is Children’s Health Month, and it is been a good time to focus attention on cleaning up hazards that affect kids more as they grow and develop, automatically further generation become healthy and strong.

 


 Thailand, like much of Southeast Asia, has been experiencing an unusually long wet season this year. Thailand‘s monsoon rainy season this year has been the most severe in 50 years, Weather forecasters say.

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 According to Thai authorities capital Bangkok is still facing a threat of flooding if it is hit with more heavy rains. Intense relief efforts are underway after the worst flooding in decades swept two-thirds of the country, swamping farmland and factories and leaving 300 people dead.

Monsoon downpours that began in July have inundated two-thirds of the country, and some areas remain under more than 6 feet (2 meters) of water that is unlikely to dissipate for weeks, receded in provinces north of the capital and barriers protecting the city of 9.7 million people held. Pracha Promnok is minister of justice and director of Thailand’s flood relief. He assured journalists Monday that they can manage the situation, unless, he says, there is more rain.

He says as far as the risk of Bangkok flooding is concerned, they are working to build a defensive wall. He names three areas surrounding Bangkok’s north that he says are acting as protective barriers. He says they are confident they will succeed.

Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra, facing the first major test of her two-month-old premiership, has expressed confidence that the low-lying capital will be spared from the deadly floods. But Bangkok governor Sukhumbhand Paribatra is warning the threat to the capital is not yet past. He says the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) will raise the floodwalls in the northern outskirts of the city by half a metre, using up to 1.2 million sandbags.

Currently about one third of Thailand’s provinces are affected by the floods, which reached several metres deep in places. The heavy monsoon floods in Thailand continue to create devastation on the population and the economy of Thailand. The floods have disrupted production of cars, electronics and other goods in the kingdom, with factories and roads under water. The government estimates the disaster is likely to curb 2011 economic growth by 1.0-1.7 percentage points.

The impact is greater than the tsunami [that struck Japan in March]. According to the Labour Ministry, 10,827 factories in 17 provinces are flooded, affecting 446,777 workers. The focus is now on the nation’s first industrial estate, Nava Nakorn Industrial Estate, which houses 227 factories and employs over 170,000 workers. The agricultural and industrial sectors are the most badly affected. While 8.41 million of rice fields are flooded, cutting estimated annual output by 3 million tonnes at least, the precise extent of the damage to the industrial sector was impossible to ascertain.


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When talking about pollution in general people usually refer to air and water pollution neglecting the global threat of noise pollution. They seem to forget or are not aware of the fact that noise pollution is disturbing life of all biota present in ecosystem.

***Generically, the term ‘noise’ is used to refer to any unwanted sound. This may range from the sound created when you hammer a nail into a wall, to the sound created by an aircraft overflying your house.  Noise pollution describes any sound created by people, animals, and machines that disturbs the environment.

Urbanization, economic growth and motorized transport are some of the driving forces for environmental noise exposure and health effects. Environmental noise is defined as noise emitted from all sources except industrial workplaces.

The response of the human ear to sound depends both on the sound frequency (measure in Hertz, Hz) and sound pressure, measure in decibels (dB). The WHO guidelines for community noise recommend less than 30 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) in bedrooms during the night for a sleep of good quality and less than 35 dB(A) in classrooms to allow good teaching and learning conditions.

***The WHO guidelines for night noise recommend less than 40 dB (A) of annual average (L night) outside of bedrooms to prevent adverse health effects from night noise.

Decibel Levels of Environmental Sounds

Source–Dangerous Level

dBA SPL***

Produces Pain 

120-140

Jet Aircraft During Takeoff (at 20 meters)

130

Snowmobile
Tractor Without Cab

120

Rock Concert

110

Die Forging Hammer
Gas Weed-Whacker
Chain Saw
Pneumatic Drill

100-105

Home Lawn Mowers

95 to 100 dB

Semi-trailers (at 20 meters)

90

Source–

dBA SPL***

Discomfort Level

Above 80

Heavy Traffic

80 

Automobile  (at 20 meters)

70

Vacuum Cleaner

65

Conversational Speech (at 1 meter)

60

Quiet Business Office

50

Residential Area at Night

40

Whisper, Rustle of Leaves

20

Rustle of Leaves

10

Threshold of Audibility

 0

*** Franks JR, Stephenson MR, Merry CJ.  Preventing occupational hearing loss.  A practical guide.  DHSS (HIOSH) pub. No. 96-110. And National Institute of Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders:  Noise Induced Hearing Loss.

Noise Pollution Health Hazards;

Noise has become a very important “stress factor” in the environment of man. The term “noise pollution” has been recently used to signify the hazard of sounds which are consequence of modern day development, leading to health hazards of different type.

Continuous exposure to high decibel noise can result in some adverse effects on your health. One of these hazards is acoustic trauma to the ears caused when they are subjected to the sound of an intensity of 85 dB or more without respite.

The health hazards of noise pollution can be categorized into physiological and psychological hazards. While the former includes hearing loss, hypertension, disturbance in sleep patterns etc., the later includes problems such as annoyance, aggression and stress.

Noise induced hearing loss is one of the most harmful effects of noise pollution. More importantly, these harmful effects of noise pollution are not just restricted to human beings, even animals has to bear the brunt of the same. Studies reveal that the increase in the noise levels beyond a certain extent tends to interfere with the communication of the animals, thus resulting in disturbance in their various life processes which is also true for us.

It is generally accepted that the link between excess noise and hearing loss is obvious. But this fact is supported by epidemiological studies that compared the prevalence of hearing loss in different categories of occupations, or in particularly noisy occupations. Although other factors may also contribute to hearing loss, such as exposure to vibrations, ototoxic drugs and some chemicals, the association with noise remains robust after accounting for these influences.

Noise Pollution Effect on Public Health

Globally, more than 20 million people are estimated to have hearing difficulties.

More than half dozen people in EU countries are living in noisy soundings; a third expensive level that disturbs sleep.

In EU countries about 40% of the population is exposed to road traffic noise at levels exceeding 55 db (A); 20% is exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB (A) during the daytime; and more than 30% is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB (A) at night.

Approximately 30 million Americans are exposed to high intensity noise above 85 db in their workplace in one in 4 of these workers (or 7.5 million Americans) a permanent hearing loss will develop, compared more than nine million people in 1981.

In Germany and other developed countries as many as 4- 5 million that is 12- 15 % of the employed people are exposed to noise level of 85db or more.

Although most developed nations have government agencies responsible for the protection of the environment, no nation has a single body that regulates noise pollution. Transportation noise is usually regulated by the relevant transportation ministry, health-related work noise is often regulated by health ministries and worker’s unions, and entertainment noise such as loud music is a criminal offense in many areas. Little is currently being done to reduce noise pollution in developed countries.

Impact of noise on aquatic animals;

Some scientists believe that noise pollution could have a negative impact on the entire marine food web chain. One of the latest studies by the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona showed that dolphins and whales are not only marine animals seriously affected with noise pollution as squids and octopuses are also experiencing massive acoustic trauma because of the increased noise pollution in our oceans.

Impact of noise on birds;

Some people just want some peace and quiet, and apparently, so do the birds. The University of Colorado at Boulder has conducted a three-year study that proves in July 2009 that noise pollution affects birds and their habits. The biggest problem that birds face when there is too much noise is their ability to communicate. Birds that vocalize at lower frequencies are easily drowned out by noise pollution, affecting their ability to attract a mate and socialize with the other birds in their community. But finches and other birds that vocalize at a higher frequency appear uninfluenced by the hustle and bustle of noise pollution–apparently ignoring the mass exodus of their fellow, winged friends.

“When bombarded by noise pollution, some male birds begin to sing higher tunes and that tonal shift makes them less attractive to females”. Said Wouter Halfwerk, a behavioural ecologist at Leiden University in the Netherlands. “It could very well be that noise pollution is interfering with reproductive decisions by females.” Previous studies have shown that a variety of birds can suffer when they change their songs, said Erin Bayne, an ornithologist at the University of Alberta. The new study is one of the first to explain why.

Most recent in human beings the major negative impact is insomnia which is root cause of many diseases, although more research is in progress.


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A chemistry research team at the Ohio State University, very first time using a new kind of sensor, has isolated and measured the composition of unique dust particles in their laboratory.

Dust is made up of solid particles predominantly larger than those found in colloids and capable of temporary suspension in air or other gases. In any given room, even the most sterile scientific clean rooms, there are dust particles in the air and coating every surface. If allowed to go without cleaned, the dust will accumulate to eventually cover every surface.

But what exactly is the dust in the air and on our tables and shelves? Dust or particles released into the air from activities such as mining, quarrying, driving on unsealed roads and abrasive blasting, can cause significant adverse environmental impacts such as soiling of property or surfaces, visual impacts and personal discomfort (for example, gritty eyes).

 There are a number of situations in which dust can cause considerable annoyance to many people. It can be a very contentious issue, particularly within the context of resource consent applications for dusty activities such as quarries, stockpiles, land clearance for development and manufacturing processes.

Dust particulate can be carried several hundreds of feet, penetrating nearby homes and covering crops. Crop growth can be stunted due to the shading effect and clogged plant pores. The fine dust particles are washed off during precipitation and carried into streams, creeks and lakes increasing their respective turbidities. In human health dust is a common cause of allergies and hay fever and a conveyor of diseases according to a United Nation study (United Nations, 1979).

Led by James Coe, professor of chemistry, the Ohio State University researchers identified 63 dust particles, each containing its own composition of ingredients. They found the most common ingredient of indoor dust was organic matter, originating from either a plant or animal.

The first batch of dust contains particles, as revealed by Coe, from a mix of organic, mineral and man-made sources. 40 of the particles were organic in nature, emanating from plant or animal material while not all specifically identified; this matter includes skin particles, dander, pollen, and many others. — though finding their exact — icky — origin, will require further testing.

The second most prolific ingredient was the mineral quartz, which was found in 34 of the samples. Man-made chemicals from air pollution, fertilisers, and construction materials were also present in small amounts. “A single dust particle is like a snapshot of mankind’s impact on the environment,” Coe said. A library of dust types could aid the study of respiratory diseases that are caused by airborne particles. A lung disease called silicosis, Coe explains in an example, was caused by silica dust from mining operations.

WHO estimates more than 2 million people die every year from breathing in tiny particles present in indoor and outdoor air pollution. PM10 particles, which are particles of 10 micrometers or less, which can penetrate into the lungs and may enter the bloodstream, can cause heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and acute lower respiratory infections.

The WHO air quality guidelines for PM10 is 20 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) as an annual average, but the data released today shows that average PM10 in some cities has reached up to 300 µg/m3. Particle pollution can increase the risk of heart disease, lung cancer and asthma attacks and interfere with the growth and function of the lungs, according to the American Lung Association, which has fought to curb these emissions in the United States. This dust further causes particle pollution.

Particle pollution is a mixture of microscopic solids and liquid droplets suspended in air. This pollution, also known as particulate matter, is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulphates), organic chemicals, metals, soil or dust particles, and allergens (such as fragments of pollen or mold spores). Unlike summertime ozone, particle pollution can occur year-round, and is linked to serious health problems, even at concentrations found in many cities.

If dust countable then negative impact caused by dust help in elimination of diseases caused by dust and curing of pollution control.


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Globally, the water crisis is much worse. We are fast approaching a world in which the most hotly-contested resource for development and survival is not oil, but water.

Water sectors are likely to be the most sensitive to climate change. Fresh water availability is expected to be highly vulnerable to the anticipated climate change. While the frequency and severity of floods would eventually increase in river deltas. The arid and semi-arid regions could experience severe water stress as in Pakistan, India, Philippine etc.

Water demand will be affected by many factors, including population growth, wealth and distribution. Globally, it is estimated that between half a billion and almost two billion people are already under high water stress, and this number is expected to increase significantly by 2025, due primarily to population growth and increasing to climate change and improved groundwater monitoring.

The consequences of climate change for water resources depend not only on possible changes in the resource base (supply)…but also on changes in the demand, both human and environmental, for that resource.

Water quality would suffer from the projected impacts of climate change. Poor water quality effectively diminishes the availability of potable water, and increases the costs associated with rendering water suitable for use. Changes in water quantity and water quality are inextricably linked. Lower water levels tend to lead to higher pollutant concentrations, whereas high flow events and flooding increase turbidity and the flushing of contaminants into the water system.

River flows are expected to become more variable in the future, with more flash floods and lower minimum flows. Both types of hydrological extreme have been shown to negatively affect water quality.

Warmer air temperatures would result in increased surface-water temperatures, decreased duration of ice cover and, in some cases, lower water levels. These changes may contribute to decreased concentrations of dissolved oxygen, higher concentrations of nutrients such as phosphorus, and summer taste and odour problems.

Modern climate change is dominated by human influences, which are now large enough to exceed the bounds of natural variability. The main source of global climate change is human-induced changes in atmospheric composition. These perturbations primarily result from emissions associated with energy use, but on local and regional scales, urbanization and land use changes are also important.

Although there has been progress in monitoring and understanding climate change, there remain many scientific, technical, and institutional impediments to precisely planning for, adapting to, and mitigating the effects of climate change. There is still considerable uncertainty about the rates of change that can be expected, but it is clear that these changes will be increasingly manifested in important and tangible ways, such as changes in extremes of temperature and precipitation, decreases in seasonal and perennial snow and ice extent, and sea level rise.

Anthropogenic climate change is now likely to continue for many centuries. We are venturing into the unknown with climate, and its associated impacts could be quite disruptive.

Following are little very important information related to water.

–       3.575 million People die each year from water-related disease.

–       43% of water-related deaths are due to diarrhoea.

–       2.5 billion People lack access to improved sanitation, including 1.2 billion people who have no facilities at all.

–       The majority of the illness in the world is caused by faecal matter.

–       Lack of sanitation is the world’s biggest cause of infection.

–       At any one time, more than half of the poor in the developing world are ill from causes related to hygiene, sanitation and water supply.

–       About 2 in 3 people lacking access to clean water survive on less than $2 per day, with 1 in 3 living on less than $1. (WHO)

–       The water and sanitation crisis claims more lives through disease than any war claims through guns. (UNDHP)

–       84 percent of water related deaths are in children ages 0-14. (WHO)

–       1.4 million Children die every year from diarrhoea caused by unclean water and poor sanitation. That’s 4,000 child deaths a day or one child every 20 seconds. (UNICEF)

–       98 percent of water-related deaths occur in the developing world (WHO)

–       Nearly one billion people – about one in eight – do not have access to clean drinking water.


Dengue fever infects 1200 in Pakistan. Dengue affects between 50 and 100 million people in the tropics and subtropics each year, resulting in fever, muscle and joint ache. But it can also be fatal, developing into hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome, which is characterized by bleeding and a loss of blood pressure.

The disease is found mostly in cities. The WHO says forty percent of the world’s population is now at risk in more than one hundred countries. Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific are the most affected. Dengue is also found in Africa, the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. There is no vaccine against dengue and no special treatment.

Fumigation is the best operation suggested by Lankan experts for control of this ruinous disease. Doctor Muhammad Hussain Syed, DCO from Pakistan had declared early, when dengue stars spreading, the city government would launch a fumigation campaign for 40,000 houses in certain areas of the city. But now, the city government cannot fumigate all of them. He said that the City District Government Karachi (CDGK) could not enter all homes and premises but would focus only on high-risk areas. The coming seven weeks are crucial for dengue because the number of cases tend to escalate in October.

For survival of human precious life it’s better to perform fumigation by our own self rather than dependant on foreign aid or Government remedy. But before this we must have little information about this technique and its utilizations. Fumigation is an operation in which the pesticide acts as a gas (although it may not be applied in the form of a gas) to control or kill pests or other undesirable organisms.
Fumigation in the pest control world is a severe and highly toxic method of controlling infestations, depending on the target species. They are potentially highly toxic and dangerous to humans and are only used in extreme situations as a last resort.
Exposure to frequent fumigation causes a range of respiratory and skin ailments. The effects of fumigation depend largely on the type of fumigant used and the extent of exposure. Fumigants such as chloropicrin, metam sodium, methyl bromide, methyl iodide and Telone (1,3-Dichloropropene) cause a range of symptoms including respiratory tract irritation, headaches, loss of coordination, slurred speech, skin burning and rashes, diarrhea, and acute kidney and liver failure.

Fumigants affect not only their target microorganisms but also the environment at large. According to S. Cohen, T. Martin and M. L. Flint in the book “Field Fumigation,” fumigants move through the soil and remain in it for days and weeks after initial application.

According to David Pimentel in the “Encyclopedia of Pest Management, Volume 2,” methyl bromide, a major soil fumigant, is known to be directly responsible for ozone depletion. Toxic levels of methyl bromide persist for three weeks or longer in soil, moving through water films and air spaces.

Few following Precautions must have to adopt before fumigation;

Areas must be completely sealed before they can be fumigated. In addition, you must remove pets, plants and mattresses and sealed food and medicine before fumigation, as the gas will kill anything living and may leave residue on mattresses. Fumigators must wear gas masks and protective clothing. Determine the proper insecticide to use for your region by contacting your local Agricultural Extension Service.

 Mosquitoes in some locales have become resistant to one or more insecticides, but if you are unable to get specific advice, use a product labeled specifically for killing mosquitoes and containing a combination of malathion and permethrin or pyrethrins.

Mosquitoes also spread malaria. The kind of mosquito that injects the malaria parasite into the people it bites is most active around sunset and sunrise. So bed nets can help protect people while they sleep. But the mosquito that spreads dengue, Aedes aegypti, is most active during the day.

Mosquitoes now spreading its net of spreading disease into other countries as there have been four unconfirmed deaths and some patients have been showing symptoms of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever, a more severe form of the disease, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), reported in an update.

The United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) has provided essential drugs to help treat an outbreak of dengue fever that has affected an estimated 1,000 people in the north-eastern Kenyan district of Mandera, which borders Ethiopia and Somalia.

So if dengue is spreading from Sri lanka to India then Pakistan and now very recently in Somalia and Ethiopia then we all must be follow few precautions rather then relaxed and wait for time to cure the problem when it become a monster and difficult to control such fiend.


 

According to the U.N. FAO, 2.2% or about 1,687,000 ha of Pakistan is forested, according to FAO. Pakistan had 340,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Pakistan lost an average of 42,000 ha or 1.66% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Pakistan lost 33.2% of its forest cover or around 840,000 ha.

Pakistan’s forests contain 213 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Pakistan has some 1027 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 3.5% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 5.5% are threatened. Pakistan is home to at least 4950 species of vascular plants, of which 7.5% are endemic. 4.0% of Pakistan is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Khurshid Ahmed, an environmentalist from Peshawar University, says most of the logs illegally cut from Pakistan’s forests have been washed away by the recent high-speed rains that not only caused habitat damage but also hindered the smooth flow of rainwater in streams, canals and the rivers.

“The same logs, when taken along in the flood waters, blocked the low clearance of concrete bridges and diverted the flow of water from the main stream towards the nearby population,” said Ahmed.

Illegal human encroachment onto river banks, and even into river beds, also hindered the flow of water, as did the houses built along the path by the river, which were blown away.

Pakistan lacks adequate resources and expertise for climate protection, so some experts have suggested the government to seek assistance from the Green Climate Fund for implementing climate change measures.

 In August, the southern parts of the country received 270 percent above-normal monsoon rains. And in September, the monsoons rains were 1,170 percent above normal, says Dr. Qamar-uz-Zaman Chaudhry, Adviser Climate Affairs.

The Sindh province, where six million acres of land were inundated in current floods, had experienced severe drought conditions before the monsoon season and had not received any rainfall at all during the past 12 months.

After such drastic flood almost 5.3 million – number of people affected by this year’s rains, which began falling in late August.

370,000 people estimated to still be living in camps in Sindh.

200,000 – People made homeless.

1.7 million acres of arable land affected.

300 – Estimated kill in three months

Government and relevant authorities took serious action to control the rate of deforestation otherwise situation of survival in Pakistan become very difficult as we see most poor African countries especially just consider the example of Ethiopia, that has lost three-quarters of its remaining trees in the last twenty-five years. Forest cover is now down to just 3%. This land, the birthplace of all humanity, has grown barren. (It’s the usual story: the greed of the former dictatorship; unwise land policies; the desperate poor cutting trees for fuel.) Since 1985, the year of the “Live Aid” concert, food production has declined by two-thirds, and twice as many Ethiopians are going hungry.


NETFulcrum

The environment is the most precious asset we possess, greater than any economy or business. Without it, the world as we know it could not possibly exist, and as we speak our environment is changing beyond recognition before our very eyes.

We all heard in our routeings life about carbon level and carbon foot prints but a normal simple Lehman have no much more idea what is carbon level and carbon foot prints, we can say in easy language that carbon is an essential constituent of our life and very important for making glucose in our blood as much we eat or drink it accumulate in the body in the form of carbon.

 As by doing different types of exercises, yoga and dieting we maintain our body weight to ovoid it to store excessive amount of carbon which further seems easily in the form of overweight and obesity. Which is a root cause of different types of diseases, similarly in our environment carbon is present in specific amount mainly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon mono oxide (CO).

But if its concentration is increased from its specific level then it also responsible for causing different harm to environment in the form of increase in temperature, which further causes melting of ice and glaciers, flooding, barren of fertile land, drought, famine and mortality of life all in the form of plants and animals.

A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact our activities have on the environment, and in particular climate change. It relates to the amount of greenhouse gases produced in our day-to-day lives through burning fossil fuels for electricity, heating and transportation etc.

The carbon footprint is a measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce and has units of Parts per million (or ppm) is simply a way of measuring the concentration of different gases, and means the ratio of the number of carbon dioxide molecules to all of the molecules in the atmosphere.

Notorious carbon dioxide is not toxic if present in normal amount but in fact its minimum concentration 275 ppm in atmosphere is essential for survival of life o earth. Yes! Its excessive concentration in our atmosphere form it a real harming and toxic for us. For all of human history until about 200 years ago, our atmosphere contained 275 parts per million of carbon dioxide. 275 ppm CO2 is a useful amount—without some CO2 and other greenhouse gases that trap heat in our atmosphere, our planet would be too cold for humans to inhabit.

Beginning in the 18th century, humans began to burn coal and gas and oil to produce energy and goods. The amount of carbon in the atmosphere began to rise, at first slowly and now more quickly.

Many of the activities we do every day like turning the lights on, cooking food, or heating or cooling our homes rely on energy sources like coal and oil that emit carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere. We’re taking millions of years worth of carbon, stored beneath the earth as fossil fuels, and releasing it into the atmosphere. By now—and this is the second number—the planet has about 392 parts per million CO2 – and this number is rising by about 2 parts per million every year.

Modern climate change is dominated by human influences, which are now large enough to exceed the bounds of natural variability. The main source of global climate change is human-induced changes in atmospheric composition. These perturbations primarily result from emissions associated with energy use, but on local and regional scales, urbanization and land use changes are also important.

Although there has been progress in monitoring and understanding climate change, there remain many scientific, technical, and institutional impediments to precisely planning for, adapting to, and mitigating the effects of climate change.

There is still considerable uncertainty about the rates of change that can be expected, but it is clear that these changes will be increasingly manifested in important and tangible ways, such as changes in extremes of temperature and precipitation, decreases in seasonal and perennial snow and ice extent, and sea level rise. Anthropogenic climate change is now likely to continue for many centuries. We are venturing into the unknown with climate, and its associated impacts could be quite disruptive.

In easy way because of deforestation, industrialization, fossil fuel consumption, nuclear technology, rapid population, large utilization of vehicles, depletion of natural resources man blamed for disturbance and cause of pollution. Due to which in our surrounding carbon level is increasingly up to the planet has about 392 parts per million CO2 – and this number is rising by about 2 parts per million every year.

Major resources depletion that normally is occurring is due to lack of awareness, most of the people have no idea what green house gases which emits by all these man are made resources. But with passage of time awareness is increasing among the Lehman and they urges mostly to their fellows on the conservations instead of utilizations. some of the world’s leading climate scientists have now revised the highest safe level of CO2 to 350 parts per million.

Now many scientists, meteorologists and environmentalists are giving idea that if we control our habits of excessive utilization of natural resources and depend only on least energy concerned resources like solar energy, hydral energy and wind energy instead of fossil fuel energy and nuclear energy then things seems to be going in fine direction and we would maintain our target to decrease down the carbon dioxide level to 350ppm from 392 ppm.

If  this is going on then that time is not faraway to get our target to be have green pollution free environment also it is time consuming  and hard but not impossible. Because earth is our mother land if anthropogenic sources have been polluting it then must be cured by anthropogenic ally, need of the hour is just to control on carbon consumption.


 

Asia is a worst hit region by sudden impact disasters; include floods, earthquakes, tidal waves, tropical storms, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. Sudden impact disasters Floods are the type of natural disaster most frequently associated with sudden migration of large populations and food shortages. Earthquakes cause the greatest number of deaths and overwhelming infrastructural damage.

Asian countries including Pakistan face the greatest risk from severe climate change, which could force millions of people to flee their homes and trigger environmental migration, according to an Asian Development Bank report. The report titled “Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific” says Bangladesh, India, Maldives and Pakistan face the greatest risk, but Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, China and South Korea are also especially vulnerable.

Over 42 million people across the world and 30 million just from Asia were forced to flee due to Natural hazard’s disasters in 2010, according to a new study by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)’s Geneva‐based Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). In 2009, 17 million people were displaced by such disasters, and 36 million in 2008. Considering that figure, projections that 50 million people will be displaced by climate change globally by 2020 seems an optimistic projection. Reports from the International Organization for Migration say by 2050 there could well be 1 billion people driven from their homes.

The number of natural disasters reported has doubled from around 200 to over 400 a year over the past two decades. In 2010, over 90 per cent of disaster displacement within countries was caused by climate‐related hazards, primarily floods and storms.

In 2009 major floods of India and China which covered a huge area of the southern provinces, as well as some in central and even the north displaced over 15 million people . In Pakistan in mid‐2010, at least 11 million people were forced to leave their home areas, and had their homes and livelihoods destroyed by the flood waters.

“The scale of displacement is enormous. Every single number in this report is a person whose life is severely affected, and it is vital that those women, men and children who are being displaced by the impact of climate change and natural hazards receive the assistance and protection they need”, said NRC Secretary General Elisabeth Rasmusson at the launch. “This report provides us with evidence of the extent and urgency of the problem that we cannot ignore. We must increase collaborative efforts to prevent displacement by natural disasters, and do a better job of protecting those displaced”.

“Globally, eight to 10 countries with the largest number of people living in low-elevation coastal zones are in the region,” the report says. Bank warns that migration driven by environmental factors is emerging as a serious concern. “It’s not just a threat. It’s something we’ve already seen,” said Bart Edes, director of ADB’s Poverty Reduction, Gender, and Social Development Division, stressing the need for policymakers and leaders “to take action now in order to help address the problem.”

Table 1 seven sudden-onset Asian disasters causing most displacement in 2009.

Country

Type

Start date

Number displacement

Source

Percentage

of total

displaced

India

Flood

25/09/2009

2,500,000

Reuters AlertNet

15%

India

Storm (Cyclone Aila)

25/05/2009

2,300,920

Reuters AlertNet

14%

China

Storm (Typhoon

Morakot)

09/08/2009

1,620,000

UN OCHA

10%

China

Flood

01/07/2009

938,000

IFRC

6%

Bangladesh

Storm (Cyclone Aila)

25/05/2009

842,000

UN

5%

Indonesia

Earthquake (West

Sumatra)

30/09/2009

675,000

UN OCHA

4%

India

Flood

01/07/2009

500,000

Action Aid

3%

Total

 

 

9375920

 

57%

 

 

Table 2 seven sudden-onset Asian disasters causing most displacement in 2010

Country

Type

Start date

Number displacement

Source

Percentage

of total

displaced

China

Flood

07/05/2010

15,200,000

IFRC/DMIS

36%

 

Pakistan

Flood

06/04/2010

11,000,000

Pakistan Floods Shelter Cluster

26%

Colombia

Flood

06/04/2010

1,500,000

Center for International Disaster Information (CIDI)

 

4%

Colombia

Flood

01/07/2010

1,500,000

National Red Cross- Colombia

4%

Thailand

Flood

10/10/2010

1,000,000

AFP- news agency

2%

Nigeria

Flood

13/09/2010

560,000

AFP- news agency

1%

India

Flood

05/09/2010

523,000

Dartmouth Floods Observatory

1%

Total

 

 

31283000

 

74%

Some 26 million people worldwide currently live in situations of internal displacement as a result of conflicts or human rights violations. They were forced to flee their homes because their lives were at danger, but unlike refugees they did not cross international borders. Although internally displaced people now outnumber refugees by two to one, their plight receives far less international attention.

Heart braking data results shows that natural disasters all increasing g rapidly with passage of time and due to which more refuges are moving from affected area to safe place for their survival.

In these disastrous conditions of flood, storm and earthquake a large number of contagious and epidemic diseases are spreads amongst affected due to sanitation and water contaminations.

The need of the hour is to sensibly utilization of energy resources and preplanning for coming disaster changes. As many countries faced already such destructive hazards but they even learn nothing from their past experiences.


Ms Marvi, Former PML-Q legislator, who toured Badin, Thatta, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar and Thar districts recently, alleged that the rainfall was predicted by the Met Department this year and by the Climate Change Committee of the National Assembly last year, of which she was the chairperson.

But the irrigation and drainage systems of Sindh had not been rectified from a design fault nor had they been maintained to cater for any amount of rain.

She said if the federal and the provincial government had implemented the flooding report Commission, Nisar Mammon Parliamentary Committee, A.N.G. Abbasi  Parliamentary Committee, Civil society response on the funds provided by the Asian Development Bank, Climate Commission and WAPDA reports the destruction in sindh could have been averted.

Relief efforts have been providing to the effectives by different wealthy sources. The UN has made an appeal for around $357 (£231m) million to help the Pakistani government in providing assistance to over five million people affected by floods in the country, a UN spokesperson said.

The plan, <“http://reliefweb.int/node/447395“>launched Two Days before (on 19th September) in the Pakistani capital, Islamabad, aims to provide food, water, sanitation, health care, and emergency shelter to the most-affected families for six months. It is similar to a plan launched last year in the wake of the devastating floods that affected some 20 million people, resulted in some 2,000 deaths and submerged about a fifth of the country. 

Almost three quarters of crops in Pakistan’s flood-devastated province of Sindh have been destroyed or damaged, and nearly 37 per cent of the livestock lost or sold to avoid loss, a joint assessment mission of the United Nations humanitarian office and Pakistani Government officials has reported.
More than 6,000 schools had been damaged by the floods and 1,363 education facilities are currently being used as relief distribution sites, according to the assessment team that visited 16 districts in Sindh.
More than 5.4 million people have been affected by the flood in Sindh, with 1.8 million of them displaced from their homes in inundated villages, according to the mission, which also reported that there are 6,000 temporary settlements in the province.

The humanitarian crisis is growing as the rains continue to fall across southern Pakistan. At least 824,000 people have been forced from their homes, and have moved to make-shift settlements and relief sites on higher ground across the flood-affected areas.

Pakistani authorities are unsure how many people are still stranded by floods that first hit Pakistan in August following unusually heavy monsoon rains and have affected at least 5.4 million people.

The Pakistani government was widely criticized last year for its stuttering response to the worst floods in the country’s history, which affected at least 18 million people and inundated one-fifth of Pakistan — an area the size of the United Kingdom.

Aid has been delivered by helicopter to people in Hyderabad and Sanghar by the Pakistan Air Force.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC) will support Pakistan Red Crescent Society (PRCS) to provide urgent relief and medical support to 50,000 families affected by the devastating floods in Sindh.

This was stated by PRCS Chairperson Senator Nilofar Bakhtiar while briefing a group of journalist after her return from Japan where she held detailed meeting with IFRC President Tadateru Konoé and discussed the flood situation in Sindh.

The Pakistan army said it has rescued 58,000 people from the current floods and has distributed 885 tons of rations.

But being rescued is just one step in a long road to recovery for many flood victims, especially the very old and young. There are also problems of child/family separation, missing family members and loss of civil documentation such as national identity cards, which may hinder access to some types of assistance.


What poor countries do now as Environment Protection Agency (EPA) of America declared hay as a pollutant and risk for health of people and environment? Third world countries dairy farms having horses and cattles for business purposes they normally cannot afford other special fodder for their animals they just eat to animals hay as basic food. If government of their countries also declared hay as pollutant then survival of animals dependent on hay would be difficult.
Hay is grass, legume or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder particularly for grazing livestock such as cattle, horse, goats, and sheep. Hay is also fed to pets such as rabbits and guinea pigs.
Hay is fed when or where there is not enough pasture or rangeland on to graze an animal, when grazing is unavailable due to weather (such as during the winter) or when lush pasture by itself is too rich for the health of the animal. It is also fed during times when an animal is unable to access pasture, such as when animals are kept in a stable or barn.
Most animals are fed hay in two daily feedings, morning and evening. However, this schedule is more for the convenience of humans, as most grazing animals on pasture naturally consume fodder in multiple feedings throughout the day. Some animals, especially those being raised for meat, may be given enough hay that they simply are able to eat all day. Other animals, especially those that are ridden or driven as working animals, are only free to eat when not working, and may be given a more limited amount of hay to prevent them from getting too fat. The proper amount of hay and the type of hay required varies somewhat between different species. Some animals are also fed concentrated feeds such as grain or vitamin supplements in addition to hay. In most cases, hay or pasture forage must make up 50% or more of the diet by weight.

“Now that EPA has declared hay a pollutant, every farmer and rancher that stores hay, or that leaves a broken hay bale in the field, is potentially violating EPA rules and subject to an EPA enforcement action,” responded Mike Callicrate, a Kansas cattle feeder, “How far are we going to let this agency go before we stand up and do something about it?”
Callicrate is permitted to handle 12,000 cattle at a time in his feedlot, which is considered a small to mid-sized feedlot in an industry now dominated by mega-feedlots such as those owned by the world’s largest beef packer – JBS-Brazil – with a one-time capacity of over 900,000 cattle; or the other mega-feedlot that also feeds hundreds of thousands of cattle at a time and is owned by the nation’s second-largest beef packer – Cargill; or the other handful of mega feedlots with capacities of hundreds of thousands of cattle such as those owned by Cactus Feeders, Inc. and Friona Industries.
According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, animals raised on industrialized farms produce about 788,000 pounds of manure per day. That’s a lot of raw sewage, and none of it ends up in treatment plants. A lot of this hazardous material is instead either sprayed onto fields or funnelled into huge lagoons. Too often, it ends up in drinking water, groundwater, oceans, rivers, and streams. The results of this, of course, can be downright catastrophic.
It’s no secret that factory farms are bad for our planet. And when it comes into water, the effects of these massive operations can be especially devastating both in terms of the pollution caused by toxic runoff and the waste of one of our most precious and essential natural resources.
Worldwide, over 20 million tons of phosphorus is currently released into the ocean each year, creating unwanted algal blooms and harming fish.
Phosphate is the building block and fuel of all living cells in plants and animals. Like oil, it is a limited resource concentrated in very few countries, but unlike oil, there are no substitutes.
Around 80% of the phosphate in animal feed is in a form that is unavailable to the animal and is therefore wasted in manure. The phosphate in manure washes into groundwater and downstream waterways, causing algal blooms and reducing oxygen in the water, harming marine life. It is a growing problem in many countries.
Alfalfa, barley, Birds foot trefoil, cale, canola, turnip, Bermuda grass, brome, false oat grass, heath grass, orchard grass, rye grass, oat, millet and wheat etc. are common plants grown especially for fodder. And all causing different form of allergies to animals and indirectly causing pollution and increment in carbon level.

 


Stagnant rainwater gathered in puddles are sure breeding grounds for dengue and malaria-carrying mosquitoes, more breeding grounds are expected to be created by more flood water, triggering the birth of more mosquitoes. Thousands of cases of gastro and dengue fever were reported in various cities of Pakistan including Rawalpindi, Lahore and Karachi, however, the provincial government allocated little budget for prevention and control of the said infections.

More than 374 patients from both private and public hospitals have been confirmed dengue fever positive in the Punjab including 273 in provincial metropolis and 101 from other cities during the last seven-and-a-half months till August 21, according to Communicable Disease Control (CDC) Cell of the Health Department.
Manager, Provincial Malaria Control Programme, Dr Naheed Jamali said that six thousand cases of malaria had been reported in the ongoing year, which she considered normal. President Infection Control Society, Director Dow Laboratories and Assistant Professor Dow University of Health Sciences, Dr Rafique Khanani says the chances of malaria and dengue spreading in the rain-hit areas of Sindh have drastically increased due to the accumulated rainwater in the flooded areas. Whereas the allocated budget for the Provincial Malaria Control Programme for the calendar year 2011-12 was yet to be released.
Africa, Asia, and Central and South America are the areas with high numbers of malarial and dengue infections. To reduce the chance of getting malaria, experts suggested to people should avoid malaria and dengue-endemic areas of the world, use mosquito repellents, cover exposed skin, and use mosquito netting covered areas when sleeping.
Despite decades of efforts to beat mosquitoes with insecticides, indoor spraying, bed nets and combination drugs, malaria still kills nearly 800,000 people a year, most of them babies and young children in sub-Saharan Africa.
A study from Africa and South America which have suggested resistance to common insecticides is on the rise, and said this could have serious implications for malaria control strategies, particularly since there are few alternative insecticides that are effective, cheap and safe for humans.
By 2010 the proportion of mosquitoes resistant to Delta methrin, the chemical recommended by the World Health Organization for bed nets, was 37%. In the last four months of the study the researchers found that the incidence of malaria attacks returned to high levels. Among older children and adults the rate was even higher than before the introduction of the nets.
Climate change, which continued to endanger health and food safety were among major health issues that needs to be given more attention. Experts say that Pakistan needs to invest a lot on research on most effective measures to protect health from climate change particularly in vulnerable populations such as women, children and elderly in the country.
In January 2011, President Paul Biya announced that malaria treatment would be free for all children under five. And now Cameroonian Prime Minister Philemon Yang on Saturday 20 August launched an anti-malaria campaign, promising to distribute nine million free mosquito nets. But in Pakistan no such positive steps have seen in such unhealthy conditions. Health experts from Pakistan suggest that the provincial health department particularly in Punjab should allocate a separate additional budget well in time for prevention and control of dengue fever in 2011, now when dengue is on full boom, misfortunately.
The 12th International Training Course on Dengue, 8- 19 August, which for the first time was attended by more than 200 experts from Cuba and another 27 countries, also included the third International Convention on Latin American Laboratories and Collaborating Centers for Dengue (RELDA), where the structure and work guidelines of the organization for the next term were discussed.
The 12th International Training Course on Dengue concluded in Havana with the participation of Cuban and foreign specialists. The creation of a multinational dengue monitoring and control program is one of the main achievements of the 12th International Training Course on Dengue.
In addition, the participants paid tribute to Professor Gustavo Kouri —who passed away recently— for his contribution to the struggle against dengue. Kouri was an insigne scientist, researcher and director, who had taken part in the eleventh previous courses.

 


Dates are a staple fruit of the Middle East having been in cultivation for thousands of years. Traditionally, dates are known as the food Muhammad (P.B.U.H) ate when he broke from his fast.

During the period of Ramadan when fasting lasts from sunrise to sunset, the body can develop mild health problems such as headaches, low blood sugar, and lethargy. To avoid such problems, one should carefully monitor their eating habits once fasting for the day has ended. Dates are an excellent source of fiber, sugar, magnesium, potassium, and have carbohydrates which will aid the body in maintaining health. The carbohydrates found in dates also make the fruit a slower digesting food, much better than fried or fatty foods which digest fast and leave one hungry for more!

Dates are an important traditional crop in Arabia, Turkey, Iraq, and North Africa west to Morocco. United states also cultivate dates in its few states like Arizona, California and Southern Florida.

Top Ten Dates Producers — 2007
(1000 tonnes)
 Egypt 1,313.69
 Iran 1,000.00
 Saudi Arabia 982.54
 United Arab Emirates 755.00
 Pakistan 557.52
 Algeria 526.92
 Iraq 440.00
 Sudan 332.00
 Oman 255.87
 Libya 175.00
World Total 6908.90
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as walnut, almonds, marzi pan or cream cheese, tahini, candid lemon and orange peel. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food.

Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called “‘ajwa”, spread, date syrup or honey called “dibs” or “rub” in Libya.

Recent innovations include chocolate covered dates and products such as sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan.

 Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stock fee. Dried dates are fed to camels, horses and dogs in the Sahara.

According to a study in many ways, “dates may be considered as an almost ideal food, providing a wide range of essential nutrients and potential health benefits.” Dates are a very good source of dietary potassium. The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc.

In India and Pakistan, North Africa and Ghana date palms are tapped for the sweet sap which is converted into palm sugar (known as gur). It is also used to make jallab.

There are numerous cultivars of dates, but the most common are medjool, khadrawi, halawi, and thoory. Medjools and halawi are known for being very soft, lucious, and sweet…the halawi being slightly smaller than the medjool. Thoory dates are often much wrinkled and somewhat tough with a somewhat nutty taste. Khadrawi are not often seen on the American market but highly prized in Arab countries. They are very dark and small, but do not keep for long. Only Iran cultivated 400 different types of dates.

Dried dates (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,180 kJ (280 kcal)
Carbohydrates 75 g
Sugars 63 g
Dietary fibre 8 g
Fat 0.4 g
Protein 2.5 g
Water 21 g
Vitamin C 0.4 mg (1%)
Manganese 0.262 mg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

 

 


 

Since ancient times, ants have been applauded for their wisdom.  They get this honoured due to their learning abilities, ability to correct mistakes, and hard working. Like human beings they have many excellent qualities due to which they are survival on earth. Its mean Change is inevitable and changing according to existing surrounding is very necessary for survival. But many endangered species lack of these super qualities that’s why they or on their survival risk.

Same is expected going to be with rhinoceroses they also not doing much struggle for their survival, even they have been not competing for their food and shelters, that’s why they are on the edge of depletion and considered as endangered species due to their presence in minimum numbers.

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Rhinoceroses are huge animals. They considered as endangered species because of rapid depletion in their numbers. Reduction normally occurs due to their precious horns which are mostly uses are different medication or magic purposes.

White rhinoceros; White rhinoceros having not white colour but in fact they are of grey colour but due to light colour from its other relevant species they are called as white rhinoceros. They have approximately weight up to 1ton=2000 pounds=907.18kg. There size normally ranges from 7- 14 feet long. Skin is mostly 1.5 up to 5.0 cm thick which helps them to survive in hot and high temperature.

They normally prefer to get their food normally in the morning or at evening when solar radiations are not showing their peak reaction. Such hot hours they normally went near muddy areas or ponds where they covered their thick and tough skin with mud. This muddy coating helps them as an insect’s repellent and cooling agent or sun block.

One to Two horns are present at frontal bone; frontal horn is larger than back one. Horn increases normally three inches per year. Maximum height of horn is up to five feet. Brain is very small its weight might up to 400-6000 grams. Their pointed upper lips help them in getting their meal. They use grasses as food. But small bushes in ponds and marshy areas also use if grass became shorter as food. Male acts as head of family and female obey him. Male uses its horns for getting food and defense from other members of same species.

They are very caring towards their families so normally lives as single or only with their own families a hate if other male rhinos approaches its territory. For these purposes his strong smell and hearing sense helps him a lot. Female rhinos mostly just care her young ones because an even three year old rhino is not too strong to get his food or performs other basic works for his survival. Female rhinos gave birth to young one almost after2.5 to 5 years. They are most commonly found in china, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Tibet and Singapore uses rhino’s horns for medication purposes while north Africa, and central east countries uses these precious horns for formations of different weapons and decoration pieces. Sahara desserts of Africa were enriched places with these species but now they are most endangered at those areas.

Black Rhinoceroses;

They love to live in groups and in each group up to 10to 12 members are present. they also uses muddy and marshy areas to avoid solar radiations at day time and Leaves and fruits of tress, long bushes and other grass and bushes present in dumps or ponds are their food items. Morning and evening are best time for them to getting food remaining they regurgitating food. Almost only 11000 members of black rhinos are left on earth.

Indian Rhinoceroses;

 They found normally at north India and Nepal. They are most active species, they could run up to maximum 48km/hour, they can even jump and turn back easily. Their unique platted thick skin helps them to do so. They love to live near such habitat where water is most abundant, they mostly sit ideally in water and enjoy playing within it.  Leaves and fruits of tress, long bushes and other grass and bushes present in dumps or ponds and mangroves are their food items. They have only single horn which they use for getting food and fight purpose. Only 2000 numbers are left.

Sumatran Rhinoceroses;

They easily recognized due to their thick hairy reddish brown skin.

Hairs are mostly present in clusters on ears. They are smaller in size and weight than other remaining species. A normal rhinos have weight up to 800 kg and size up to 8- 10 feet and height up to 5 feet. They also have two small horns. Frontal lager as compare to posterior and having length up to 31 inches a posterior horn is maximum 3 inches long. Only 400 members are left. In 2001 in a zoo Ohio of American state female rhinos first time gave birth young one after almost 100 years. They utilize normally bushes and grass as food.

Javan rhinoceroses;

These were mostly present at Sumatra, India, Burma, Malaysia, and Sumatra but since 1930 single species have been not found in these habitats. Their weight ranges from 900 to 2000 kg. Height is 4 feet 10 inches to 5 feet and 7 inches. Horn of male rhino having height 26 cm while female rhinos having just a sign of it. Only 60 members are left all over the world.

If we can do not much more at least we can create awareness in public by writing more and more to awareness so that people might love them and protect them.


Mount Stromlo after the fires: remains of the ...

Image via Wikipedia

How do we cope with climate change?

by Naseemsheikh

Natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, droughts and volcanic eruptions are more in news nowadays. Every year they are responsible for many deaths and serious injuries, they destroy livelihoods and damage economies. Scientists predict that climate change will affect the frequency and severity of some natural hazards.

Earthquakes do occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates because of plate motions. Understanding why plates change direction and speed is key to unlocking huge seismic events such as last month’s Japan earthquake, which shifted the Earth’s axis by several inches, or February’s New Zealand quake. Scientists have for the first time shown a link between intensifying climate events and tectonic plate movement in findings that could provide a valuable insight into why huge tremors occur. Tectonic movements influence climate by creating new mountains and sea trenches and vice versa also. “The closure or opening of new ocean basins or the build of large mountain bands like the Andes or Tibet itself, those are geological processes that affect the pattern of climate,” said Giampiero Iaffaldano, an earth scientist with the Australian National University.

Global sea level rouse by 1-2cm on an average a decade during the 20th centuary.sea level is predicted to rise 10-90cm this century. The main cause of sea level rise is thermal expansions of the oceans due to numerous floods, melting glaciers and ice sheets. Tsunamis normally occur under water eruptions, volcanic actions or land sliding

Cracked earth and river beds signal the onset of drought. In developing countries crop failure and untold human suffering usually follows. Worldwide ten hottest years on record have al occurred since 1990. Computer models predict that some regions of Africa become drier in the future .improved seasonal weather forecasting can prepare communities for drought, helping to mitigate its effects. 

Landslides kill and injured many people throughout the world every year. Main cause of land sliding are very well under stood, they including erosion, deforestation and saturated soil. Some storms with heavy rainfall also are cause of land sliding.

All above mentioned natural hazards are mainly due to change in balanced natural temperature. Global warming also affects a lot mainly caused by pollutions. Currently, many different types of observations indicate that average temperatures at many locations around the world are increasing:

  • As of 2009, carbon dioxide levels are higher than they have ever been for over half of a million years.
  • Most glaciers around the world are rapidly retreating, from Africa to Alaska.
  • Sea ice cover has decreased substantially in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Migratory bird nesting and breeding patterns have shifted dramatically.
  • Lakes are freezing later in the winter and thawing earlier in the spring around the world.
  • More record high temperatures have been recorded in the last decade than any other time in history.
  • Weather stations have recorded significant increases in average annual temperatures at several locations around the world.
  • Hurricane intensity appears to be increasing in the Atlantic Ocean, possibly the result of the availability of additional heat energy.
  • Permafrost in the northern tundra regions is melting.

How do we cope with climate change?

  • Human activities are greatly accelerating natural climate change. In this case, preventive medicine is the best kind of medicine; curbing the activities that are likely contributing the most to climate change, such as fossil fuel burning, may eventually decrease the rate and extent of climate change.
  • Implementing renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, and high-efficiency automobiles (such as the Honda Civic and Toyota Prius) are important steps towards reducing fossil fuel emissions.
  • Building cities that emphasize walking, biking, and mass transportation can reduce fuel consumption and improve physical health.
  • These steps also work toward improving the quality of the air that we breathe and decreasing our dependency on fossil fuels, which are non-renewable resources with dwindling supplies.
  • If negative climate changes are minimize then all natural hazards reduce automatically.

 


Mount Stromlo after the fires: remains of the ...

Image via Wikipedia

How do we cope with climate change?

by Naseemsheikh

 

Natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, droughts and volcanic eruptions are more in news nowadays. Every year they are responsible for many deaths and serious injuries, they destroy livelihoods and damage economies. Scientists predict that climate change will affect the frequency and severity of some natural hazards.

Earthquakes do occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates because of plate motions. Understanding why plates change direction and speed is key to unlocking huge seismic events such as last month’s Japan earthquake, which shifted the Earth’s axis by several inches, or February’s New Zealand quake. Scientists have for the first time shown a link between intensifying climate events and tectonic plate movement in findings that could provide a valuable insight into why huge tremors occur. Tectonic movements influence climate by creating new mountains and sea trenches and vice versa also. “The closure or opening of new ocean basins or the build of large mountain bands like the Andes or Tibet itself, those are geological processes that affect the pattern of climate,” said Giampiero Iaffaldano, an earth scientist with the Australian National University.

Global sea level rouse by 1-2cm on an average a decade during the 20th centuary.sea level is predicted to rise 10-90cm this century. The main cause of sea level rise is thermal expansions of the oceans due to numerous floods, melting glaciers and ice sheets. Tsunamis normally occur under water eruptions, volcanic actions or land sliding

Cracked earth and river beds signal the onset of drought. In developing countries crop failure and untold human suffering usually follows. Worldwide ten hottest years on record have al occurred since 1990. Computer models predict that some regions of Africa become drier in the future .improved seasonal weather forecasting can prepare communities for drought, helping to mitigate its effects. 

Landslides kill and injured many people throughout the world every year. Main cause of land sliding are very well under stood, they including erosion, deforestation and saturated soil. Some storms with heavy rainfall also are cause of land sliding.

All above mentioned natural hazards are mainly due to change in balanced natural temperature. Global warming also affects a lot mainly caused by pollutions. Currently, many different types of observations indicate that average temperatures at many locations around the world are increasing:

  • As of 2009, carbon dioxide levels are higher than they have ever been for over half of a million years.
  • Most glaciers around the world are rapidly retreating, from Africa to Alaska.
  • Sea ice cover has decreased substantially in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Migratory bird nesting and breeding patterns have shifted dramatically.
  • Lakes are freezing later in the winter and thawing earlier in the spring around the world.
  • More record high temperatures have been recorded in the last decade than any other time in history.
  • Weather stations have recorded significant increases in average annual temperatures at several locations around the world.
  • Hurricane intensity appears to be increasing in the Atlantic Ocean, possibly the result of the availability of additional heat energy.
  • Permafrost in the northern tundra regions is melting.

How do we cope with climate change?

 

  • Human activities are greatly accelerating natural climate change. In this case, preventive medicine is the best kind of medicine; curbing the activities that are likely contributing the most to climate change, such as fossil fuel burning, may eventually decrease the rate and extent of climate change.
  • Implementing renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, and high-efficiency automobiles (such as the Honda Civic and Toyota Prius) are important steps towards reducing fossil fuel emissions.
  • Building cities that emphasize walking, biking, and mass transportation can reduce fuel consumption and improve physical health.
  • These steps also work toward improving the quality of the air that we breathe and decreasing our dependency on fossil fuels, which are non-renewable resources with dwindling supplies.
  • If negative climate changes are minimize then all natural hazards reduce automatically.

 Naseemsheikh@yahoo.com


Flag of Pakistan Esperanto: Flago de Pakistano...

Flag of Pakistan Esperanto: Flago de Pakistano Español: Bandera de Pakistán Français : Drapeau du Pakistan हिन्दी: पाकिस्तान का ध्वज Italiano: Bandiera del Pakistan ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ପାକିସ୍ତାନୀ ଝଣ୍ଡା Русский: Флаг Пакистана தமிழ்: பாக்கித்தான் கொடி Türkçe: Pakistan bayrağı Slovenščina: Državna zastava Pakistana (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pakistan is basically an agricultural country, the landscape is predominantly arid. Water, already a scarce commodity in most parts of the country, is now facing further shortages. Because of the poverty and population growth, there has been an over-exploitation of natural resources. An unplanned increase in industrialisation and urbanisation has led to pollution in water, air, and land. Along with water shortages, land degradation has been an issue. Environmental issues in Pakistan threaten the population’s health and have been disturbing the balance between economic development and environmental protection not much serious attention was paid to environmental issues in Pakistan in 2012. Related concerns, such as renewable resources for power productions, sanitation and potable water, received earlier scrutiny.

Location map of Pakistan Equirectangular proje...

Location map of Pakistan Equirectangular projection, N/S stretching 115 %. Geographic limits of the map: N: 37.3° N S: 23.4° N W: 60.5° E E: 80.5° E (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Year 2012 in Pakistan was really difficult for environment and climatic conditions. First shock given by Government was the dissolution of the Ministry of Environment and the creation of a new Ministry of Climate Change. The breakdown and reconstruction of institute took much time so many serious issues were neglected badly. Almost at the end of year, in September Ministry decide to develop programmes to meet the water, food and energy security issues posed by unpredictable Issues as well as prepare the country for increased incidences of natural disasters, spread of disease.

Over 90 percent of Pakistan’s water resource is used in agriculture. The agricultural sector employs nearly half of the workforce and generates a quarter of GDP. Soil used for cropping is badly affected by uncontrolled utilisation of Pesticides causing soil pollution and resulted in contaminated food production. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), about 25 million agricultural workers in our country suffer from pesticide poisoning each year that include a significant number of women. Women become victim of pesticides while performing different agronomic practises in fields. Pesticides poisoning was also well common In Pakistan, about 30 per cent women had been full-time farm workers while about 70 per cent were indirectly or directly engaged in farming. The climate in Pakistan varies with altitude, which in turn affects the type of vegetation. It has some of the world’s highest cold areas that occur above 5,175 m in the Himalayas and the hottest low areas in the Indus Plains with many intermediate ecological zones .

Flooding after effects further causing salinity in many areas leading to shortage of food. Salinity affects some 60 percent of Pakistan’s coastal farming lands, the United Nations estimates. Due to such geographical situations Pakistan faces climate extremes from very hot and arid temperatures of over 40 degrees Celsius, to severe monsoon rains and below zero degrees in winter. Pakistan in 2010 was hit by the worst floods in its history, with 84 out of 121 districts affected,But in 2012 situation improved much better as no more loss as have been observed in 2010. A report of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), per capita availability of water in the Indus basin, which lies below the Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan mountains and is shared by Afghanistan, China, India, and Pakistan, is nearly 1,329 cubic metres per year. But water availability per capital in Pakistan is much less – below 1,100 cubic meters a year, down from 5,500 meters a year in 1950, according to government reports in 2012.

Floods and glacial melt, and the silt they carry, have reduced the storage capacity of our water reservoirs and have also reduced hydro power production. An unusually long winter and delayed melting of glaciers were blamed for power shortages in June. In 2012 Monsoon patterns have mainly disturb severely .The precipitation was 50% below normal all over Pakistan. Normally as much as 80 percent of South Asia ‘s rain falls during the June-to-September monsoon. But in the period until the end of July dry weather has been observed all over Pakistan. This shortage of rain is causing further negative impact on food commodities and the shortage of food results in inflation of food prices.

Air pollution as usual was major problem in most cities, and cause of many health hazards but no special attention was given to forest or tree plantations. Carbon monoxide emission levels in Karachi and Lahore have considerably exceeded WHO’s recommended levels. It however happens only during crowded hours not 24 hours a day. To tackle the situation we need to develop a ‘Clean Air Program’. In Pakistan it is estimated that 24% of the global disease burden and 23% of all deaths can be attributed to environmental factors. About 36% of this burden affects children from 0 to 14 years of age. Be Positive for coming new Year and must try to enforce the law of land and for that we have to start a voluntary self-monitoring program because it is not possible to send inspectors to every industry in the country. Government planners and policy makers, in collaboration with non-government organisations, will need to develop their knowledge and skills and those of water users to understand and prepare for the new challenges posed by climate change.


 

English: cover of pupa of Silkworm

English: cover of pupa of Silkworm (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

International health experts estimate that nearly half of all global vaccines are lost due to breakdowns in the “cold chain.” Even in industrialised nations, loss of drug efficacy at body temperature is a serious problem for advanced pharmaceutical delivery systems such as implantable drug-coated devices. World Health Organisation estimates that unregulated temperatures at gaps in the chain account for the loss of half of all vaccines produced in the world, costing vaccine programs approximately $200-300 million a year.

 

 

 

Most vaccines, enzymes, and antibodies and many antibiotics and other drugs require constant refrigeration from manufacture to delivery to maintain their effectiveness.

 

 

 

Vaccines and antibiotics are generally stored and transported cold, and lose their efficacy if not properly refrigerated at the right temperature at all points along the cold chain, from production to use. Keeping vaccines and antibiotics to small pouches of self-standing silk protein bio material can keep cold-sensitive drugs stable and eliminate the need for cold storage, like refrigeration because refrigeration and electricity are scarce and expensive in many countries.

 

 

 

Researchers at Tufts University School of Engineering have discovered a way to maintain the potency of vaccines and other drugs (that otherwise require refrigeration) for months and possibly years at temperatures above 110 degrees F, by stabilising them in a silk protein made from silkworm cocoons. This could be a universal storage and handling system.

 

 

 

The low toxicity and price of silk make it a good candidate for application. Silk protein has a unique structure and chemistry that makes it strong, resistant to moisture, stable at extreme temperatures, and bio compatible, all of which make it very useful for stabilising antibiotics, vaccines and other drugs. The protein fibre of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons.

 

 

 

Pupa of spotted beetle

Pupa of spotted beetle (Photo credit: tonrulkens)

 

The best-known type of silk is obtained from the Cocoon of the larvae of the mulberry Silk worm and Bombyx mori reared in captivity (Seri culture). Silk has a smooth, soft texture that is not slippery, it is one of the strongest natural fibres but loses up to 20% of its strength when wet. It has a good moisture regain of 11%.

 

 

 

Silk is resistant to most mineral acids, except for sulphuric acid, which dissolves it. It is yellowed by perspiration. We can make silk into micro needles to deliver a vaccine is an enormous added advantage that can potentially provide a lot of useful solutions to stabilisation, distribution and delivery,” says Kaplan, who has been studying silk for two decades. Jeney Zhang, a graduate student from Tufts University, working in the lab of silk maestro David Kaplan, showed that silk can stabilise two antibiotics – penicillin and tetracycline – as well as the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine.

 

 

 

Wrapped in silk, penicillin spent a month at 60 degrees Celsius with no loss of activity. Normally, it breaks down after a few weeks at room temperature (25C), or just a day at human body temperature (37C) – a month at 60 is unheard of. Tetracycline is even more delicate. In silk, it lost 20 per cent of its activity after a month at 60C, and was unharmed at lower temperatures. Silk stabilisation also protected the tetracycline against degradation by light, a benefit that the researchers did not anticipate, according to co-author and research assistant professor Bruce Panilaitis. Panilaitis earned his Ph.D. in biology at Tufts Graduate School of Arts and Sciences before joining Kaplan’s lab in 2001 as a post doctoral fellow.

 

 

 

Measles is one of the leading killers of children worldwide. Without refrigeration, the MMR vaccine rapidly loses potency. But after six months of storage in freeze-dried silk films at body temperature (37 C) and at 113 F (45 C), all components of the vaccine retained approximately 85 percent of their initial potency. How does silk protect is not clear yet, the researchers propose that silk protein may traps the vaccine’s viral particles in spaces between its β-sheets, holding the particles in their native, folded state and preventing de naturation. Silk’s structure also excludes some water, enhancing its preservative qualities.

 

Silkworm cocoons.

Silkworm cocoons. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 


A company’s carbon foot print is an important part of their branding.

It  means the  total amount of greenhouse gas produces by a person, company, event, product or organization. The carbon footprint can be measured by undertaking a GHG emissions assessment. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a strategy can be devised to reduce it, e.g. by energy-saving, technological developments, better process and product management.

 

facebook Facebook has revealed the carbon footprint and energy use of its US data centers and has pledged to use 25 percent sustainable energy by 2015. Facebook currently gets 23 percent of its energy from clean and sustainable sources, 27 percent coal, 17 percent natural gas and 13 percent nuclear.

Facebook has two US data centers, located in Oregon and North Carolina, as well as two co-location facilities, one on the East coast and one on the West.

 

“We’re releasing this data because we believe in the power of openness, and because we hope that adding another data point to our collective understanding of our industry’s environmental impact will help us all keep improving,” the company said in a statement.

Facebook said that last year, its data centers and operations used 532 million kilowattgoogle solar hours of energy, emitting 285,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In contrast to Google whose carbon footprint equaled nearly 1.5 million metric tons, more than five times Facebook’s.Google has been to the forefront of some very major renewable deals itself.

For a typical Facebook user, a year’s worth of liking and posting consumes just 269 grams of carbon equivalent — “roughly the same carbon footprint as one medium latte,” the company pointed out. “Or three large bananas. Or a couple of glasses of wine.”

carbon footprint

“Unfortunately, the transparency Facebook exhibited today is still rare among companies who are racing to build our on-line world.” said Gary Cook, a Greenpeace International analyst.

“Facebook looks forward to a day when our primary energy sources are renewable, and we are working with Greenpeace and others to help bring that day close,” said Marcy Scott Lynn, one of Facebook’s sustainability directors, when that deal was announced.

As Facebook expands, we need more data centers to power our platform, more office facilities for our employees, and more energy for both,” the company said.

 

However, Facebook’s siting policy prioritizing clean energy for new data centers will help it meet and eventually exceed its goal, and other companies who want a clean cloud should make a similar commitment.

The menace of the greenhouse effect is threatening to tear the earth apart as climate change has become the greatest challenge of our time. Climate change is a fundamental issue of social justice and peace in our world.  Climate change will devastate the poor most directly and will create conditions for new conflicts over land and water resources. Being carbon neutral means having a net zero carbon footprint, or achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount offset, or buying enough carbon credits (tradeable certificates or permits representing the right to emit 1 tonne of CO2) to make up the difference.


English: az monsoon clouds

English: az monsoon clouds (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Climatic changes are actually happening and Earth is heating up, the glaciers melting and water is being consumed by the growing population. With the scarcity of water, there is less food to grow and South Asia is the most vulnerable region of the world as its population is growing far too quickly and the glaciers in the Himalayas depleting very fast. For Pakistan, the bad news is that the River Indus is 30 to 40 per cent dependent on the Himalayan glaciers.

It’s not only the Pakistan that has experienced record-breaking extreme weather events recently, in the last couple months extreme weather has struck around the world with startling ferocity. In addition to this the monsoon downpours were some of the heaviest seen in recent years. Flooding in Indonesia, Drought in South and north Korea, land sliding due to heavy rain in Bangladesh, Shifts in glacial melt and rain fall are threatening crops ,water scarcity in Pakistan are matters of great concern.

Monsoon pattern have mainly disturb severely by these global changing, It should not be called a ‘monsoon season’ as the precipitation has been 50% below normal all over Pakistan. Normally as much as 80 percent of South Asia ‘s rain falls during the June-to-September monsoon. But till end of July dry weather have observing all over the Pakistan. This shortage of rain further causing negative impact on food commodities as food items short fall resultant inflation.

The monsoon is brought by large-scale wind patterns that transport heat between the northern and southern hemispheres. The reduction in seasonal rainfall in South Asia over the past 50 years may be a result of tiny chemicals emitted into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels, according to U.S. scientists. In monsoon season sseasonal winds fluctuate widely and scientists have been developing new models that may help farmers prepare for water-supply disruptions and mitigate loss of life and property. Record monsoons last year caused floods in Pakistan that displaced almost 20 million people and caused more than $9 billion in damage.

According to the World Food Programme ,WFP,  nearly half of Pakistan’s (180 million) people are at risk of going short of food due to a recent surge in world food prices. In India, New Delhi, already battling to contain double-digit food inflation, now faces further price increases due to food shortages for its 1.2 billion people, some 42 percent of whom live in poverty. this further a key chain reaction in the form of disease induction.

Giving poor people proper access to safe water and sanitation would save 2.5 million people a year from dying from diarrhea and other diseases spread by a lack of hygiene, according to charity water Aid.

India has been drying out for half a century, and air pollution thousands of kilo meters away is partly to blame. The Thar “Golden” Desert receives the lowest rainfall in the country and has largely saline groundwater at levels 100m below the surface.
Recent flood in India ,Bangladesh and Japan threatens the rice crop, many countries ‘s soya crop is also effected by rain shortage. Salinity affects some 60 percent of ’s coastal farming lands, the United Nations estimates. In recent decades, rising sea levels in the have encroached on vast tracts of low-lying arable lands, making them too salty for some rice varieties to grow and diminishing crop yields.

On the other side severe flooding across North Korea has killed 88 people and left tens of thousands homeless, state media reported late on Saturday, threatening to make the poverty-stricken country’s already chronic food shortage still worse.


English: Waterfalls are example for natural re...

English: Waterfalls are example for natural resources (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

IN PAKISTAN, annual mean surface temperature has a consistent rising trend since the beginning of 20th century. Rise in mean temperature of 0.6-1.0°C in arid coastal areas, arid mountains and hyper arid plains, 10-15 per cent decrease in both winter and summer rainfall in coastal belt and hyper arid plains, 18-32 per cent increase in rainfall in monsoon zone especially the sub-humid and humid areas is observed. There is 5 per cent decrease in relative humidity in Baluchistan, 0.5 to 0.7 per cent Increase in solar radiation over southern half of country. In the above summarized drastic environmental changes are all due to the global warming because of insensibly usage of natural resources and in result of it production of pollutants that further causing irreversible changes to our mother land. We must adopt steps like other developed nations to reduce and further overcome these types of problems.
In America, the National Green Week is the largest waste reduction campaign in history for K-12 schools nationwide. This year’s event was held on February 6, 2012, but classrooms across the country can choose any week to be their green week between Feb. 6 and Earth Day (April 22, 2012).
According to USA Today, every American generates 3.5 pounds of trash each day and according to our life style and habitual characters we Asians must produce more waste than them. So from that point of view we could give more benefit to our localities by celebrating such environment friendly week in our schools and other institutes this even not increase awareness among people to reduce trash but also as we all know we have huge trash heaps there so we could utilize them positively for production of energy.

International Recycling Symbol 32px|alt=W3C|li...

International Recycling Symbol 32px|alt=W3C|link=http://validator.w3.org/✓ The source code of this SVG is valid. Category:Valid SVG (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In February 2007, the United Nations released a scientific report that concludes that global warming is happening and will continue to happen for centuries. The report also stated with 90% certainty that the activity of humans has been the primary cause of increasing temperatures over the past few decades. Climate change could reduce the habitable areas of the world.
The Green Education Foundation (GEF) is a non-profit organization that provides curriculum and resources to K-12 students and teachers worldwide with the goal of challenging youth to think holistically and critically about global environmental, social, and economic concerns and solutions.
Last year’s National Green Week in America from almost 5,000 schools, reaching nearly six million students resulted in 100,000 pounds of saved trashed and tens of thousands of dollars saved in utility bills, and this year is on track to be even more successful. Each year, the participation and results of the event continue to increase.
These call for public awareness and participation for bringing about an attitudinal change and finally restricting further damage to the environment. Effective implementation of environmental management and conservation programmes depends on education, awareness raising and training in the relevant areas. Sustainability movement has power and can result in long-lasting behaviour changes and Slight efforts by each of us will make a big difference.
• One of the immediate actions is waste reduction. Cut the amount of rubbish to be burned packing drinks and snacks in reusable containers can add up to big savings in energy and waste
• Go on recycling. Plastic bottles, cans, and used paper are recycled through a resource recycling centre.
• Adjusting thermostats
• Do not waste resources.
• Do not throw away products only to buy brand new ones, one after another.
• Give away old clothes to someone or remake them.
• Bring your own bags for shopping to reduce waste from plastic bags.
• Do not set your air conditioners thermostat at a colder or warmer setting than normal.
• Save energy.
• Turn off unnecessary lights.
• Use public transportation or Ride a bicycle or walk to avoid using your car.
• When you stop the car for a certain time, turn off the engine to save the fuel.
• Grow trees and protect forests.
Most regrettable fact of our declining environment & biodiversity degradation is that we have strategists, policy-makers that have no compatibility in their sayings and doings. We need conscious efforts collectively with concrete fore sightedness that can be able to feel the pulse of relentless time which is fleeting and waiting for none other than leaving the footprints of the dedicated founders of nations.
Protecting nature and resources leads to the prevention of global warming. All these suggestion are really very practicable and if we will strongly then there is no time to make them as habit and these sustainable habits can last a lifetime.

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